Stolpersteine / stumbling stones here remember:
* Julien Karels, born 1921, murdered 5 November 1942, Auschwitz.
* Max Karels, born 1891, murdered 5 November 1942, Auschwitz.
* Robert Louis Karels, born 1922, murdered 20 February 1943, Auschwitz.
* Pauline Karels-Herz, born 1896, murdered 5 November 1942, Auschwitz.
Parents Max Karels and Pauline Karels-Herz and their son Julien Karels (a shop assistant), were arrested on 2 October 1942, deported on 2 November and were all murdered 3 days later in Auschwitz. Son Robert Louis Karels, a rubbish sorter, survived another 3 months before he was deported and killed, also in Auschwitz.
(Note: some sources cite "Paulien" instead of "Pauline" and "Louis Robert" instead of "Robert Louis.")
Max Karels’ father died before the war, while his mother died at age 82 in 1945 in Amsterdam. Of his siblings alive at the beginning of the war, 5 survived to old age (3 in Brussels), but his brother Louis Karels was murdered in Auschwitz in 1942 (see his stolperstein at Zakstraat 6 in Maastricht and his brother Herman Karels was murdered in 1943 in Sobibor.
No other information was found on Pauline’s family.
"Stolpersteine" is an art project for Europe by Gunter Demnig to commemorate victims of National Socialism (Nazism). Stolpersteine (stumbling stones) are small brass plaques placed in the pavement in front of the last voluntary residence of (mostly Jewish) victims who were murdered by the Nazis. Each plaque is engraved with the victim’s name, date of birth and place (mostly a concentration camp) and date of death. By doing this, Gunter Demnig gives an individual memorial to each victim. One stone, one name, one person. He cites the Talmud: "A human being is forgotten only when his or her name is forgotten."
Borne was the first town in the Netherlands in which Stolpersteine were placed -- on 29 November 2007.
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