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Stumbling Stones Plantage Muidergracht 23

STOLPERSTEINE / STUMBLING STONES
for
* IsraŽl Cohen, born 1883, deported from Westerbork, murdered 6 March 1944, Auschwitz.
* Betsie Kleermaker, born 1882, deported from Westerbork, murdered 6 March 1944, Auschwitz.

Betsie Kleermaker and Israel Cohen, a merchant, were married in October 1908. They had a daughter, Clara, born in 1911, who was living away from them when they were deported.

IsraŽlís father Hartog Cohen died in 1942 in Utrecht and IsraŽlís mother Sara Cohen-Knegje was deported with IsraŽl and his wife Betsie in 1942; Sara died in Auschwitz on 11 February 1944, a month before IsraŽl and Betsie. IsraŽl came from a large family. Of 14 children (all born in Utrecht), 4 died before age 5 years, 7 survived the war, IsraŽl was murdered in the Holocaust and the fates of 2 other siblings are unknown.

At least one of Betsieís parents died before the war. Of the 7 Kleermaker children including Betsie, five were murdered, oneís fate is unknown and one survived. Stolpersteine for 2 sisters, Froukje Kleermaker and Johanna Wolf-Kleermaker and for Johannaís husband and 2 sons, are at Katwijkstraat 38, Oss.

"Stolpersteine" is an art project for Europe by Gunter Demnig to commemorate victims of National Socialism (Nazism). Stolpersteine (stumbling stones) are small, 10x10cm brass plaques placed in the pavement in front of the last voluntary residence of (mostly Jewish) victims who were murdered by the Nazis. Each plaque is engraved with the victimís name, date of birth and place (mostly a concentration camp) and date of death. By doing this, Gunter Demnig gives an individual memorial to each victim. One stone, one name, one person. He cites the Talmud: "A human being is forgotten only when his or her name is forgotten."

Borne was the first town in the Netherlands in which Stolpersteine were placed -- 29 November 2007.

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