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Spruance, Raymond Ames

Date of birth:
July 3rd, 1886 (Baltimore/Maryland, United States)
Date of death:
December 13th, 1969 (Pebble Beach/California, United States)
Buried on:
Golden Gate National Cemetery
Nationality:
American (1776 - present, Republic)

Biography

Promotions:
12th September 1906: Midshipman;
13th September 1908: Ensign;
?: Lieutenant (junior grade);
1914: Lieutenant;
?: Lieutenant Commander;
1928: Commander;
1932: Captain;
1st October 1940: Rear Admiral;
19th June 1943: Vice Admiral;
21st February 1944: Admiral;

Career:
1903 - 12th September 1906: US Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland;
12th September 1906 - July 1907: U.S.S. Iowa (BB 4);
? - 1909: U.S.S. Minnesota (BB 22);
April 1909: Instruction Electrical Engineering General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York;
May 1910 - October 1911: U.S.S. Connecticut (BB 18);
October 1911: Senior Engineer Officer U.S.S. Cincinnati (C 7);
March 1913: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Bainbridge (DD 1);
May 1914: Assistant to the Inspector of Machinery, Newport News (Virginia) Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company;
February 1916 - June 1916: Fitting out U.S.S. Pennsylvania (BB 38);
12th June 1916 - November 1917: U.S.S. Pennsylvania (BB 38);
1918: Assistant Engineer Officer, Navy Yard, New York, New York;
January 1919: Executive Officer U.S.S. Agamemnon;
21st April 1919 - January 1920: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Aaron Ward (DD 132);
March 1920 - June 1921: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Percival (DD 298);
1921: Bureau of Engineering, Navy Department, Washington, DC;
?: Office of Commander Naval Forces Europe;
?: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Dale (DD 290);
1924: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Osborne (DD 295);
July 1926 - May 1927: Senior Course, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island;
?: Office of Naval Intelligence, Navy Department;
October 1929: Executive Officer U.S.S. Mississippi (BB 41);
June 1931: Staff Officer Naval War College;
May 1933 - March 1935: Chief of Staff / Aide Commander Destroyers, Scouting Fleet;
March 1935 - April 1938: Staff Naval War College;
April 1938 - January 1940: Commanding Officer U.S.S. Mississippi (BB 41);
February 1940: Commandant Tenth Naval District, San Juan, Puerto Rico;
July 1941: Commander Caribbean Sea Frontier;
17 September 1941: Commander Cruiser Division Five;
18 June 1942: Chief of Staff / Aide Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet;
19 June 1943: Deputy Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet;
5 August 1943: Commander Central Pacific Force;
29 April 1944: Commander Fifth Fleet;
8 November 1945: Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas;
1st February 1946 - 1st July 1948: President of the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island;
1st July 1948: retired;
January 1952 - 31st March 1955: Ambassador in de Republic of the Philippines.

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Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Rank:
Admiral
Unit:
Fifth Fleet, U.S. Navy (Fifth Fleet, U.S. Navy)
Awarded on:
July 10th, 1945
Action:
Citation:
"For extraordinary heroism and distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander, Fifth Fleet, in action against enemy Japanese forces during the invasion and capture of Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, and Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, from January to May 1945. Responsible for the operation of a vast and complicated organization which included more than 500,000 men of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, 318 combatant vessels and 1,139 auxiliary vessels, Admiral Spruance directed the forces under is command with daring, courage and aggressiveness. Carrier units of his force penetrated waters of the Japanese Homeland and Nansei Shoto and inflicted severe damage upon hostile aircraft, shore installations and shipping. Under repeated enemy aerial attack during the Iwo invasion, Admiral Spruance was embarked on the U.S.S. Indianapolis (CA 35) when the starboard quarter of that vessel was crashed by a hostile plane which passed through the main deck causing many casualties. Shifting his Flag to the U.S.S. New Mexico (BB 40) on 5 April, he continued covering operations for the assault on Okinawa in the face of desperate enemy resistance and despite the strain of constant alerts as Japanese Kamikazes increased the fury of their attacks against our combatant and auxiliary vessels. On 12 May, another suicide plane crashed the deck of his Flagship. His professional skill, brilliant combat tactics and determination in carrying the fight to the enemy reflect the highest credit upon Admiral Spruance and the United States Naval Service."
Details:
Commander in Chief Pacific: Serial 33720 (July 10, 1945)
Navy Cross
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Rank:
Admiral
Unit:
Task Force Pacific Fleet, U.S. Navy (Task Force Pacific Fleet, U.S. Navy)
Awarded on:
October 16th, 1946
Distinguished Service Medal - Army (DSM)
Action:
Citation:
"For exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility as Task Force Commander during the capture of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Admiral Spruance rendered exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services from January to June 1944. During the joint operations leading to the assault and capture of the important enemy bases, complete integration of Army and Navy units was accomplished under his outstanding leadership, enabling all the forces to perform their closely coordinated missions with outstanding success."
Details:
War Department, General Orders No. 121 (1946).
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Awarded on:
March 18th, 1948
Details:
Received with palme.
Grootofficier in de Orde van Leopold II
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Awarded on:
March 18th, 1948
Details:
Received with palme.
Croix de Guerre 1940
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Rank:
Rear Admiral (Rear-admiral)
Unit:
Task Force 16, United States Pacific Fleet (Task Force 16, United States Pacific Fleet)
Action:
Citation states:
"For exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility as Task Force Commander, United States Pacific Fleet. During the Midway engagement which resulted in the defeat of and heavy losses to the enemy Fleet, his seamanship, endurance, and tenacity in handling his task force were of the highest quality."
Distinguished Service Medal - Navy/USMC
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Rank:
Rear Admiral
Unit:
Central Pacific Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet (Central Pacific Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet)
Action:
Citation:
"For exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility as Commander Central Pacific Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, during the seizure and occupation of the Gilbert Islands, in November 1943. In command of naval forces and certain Army amphibious and air forces during the assaults on Tarawa, Makin and Apamama, Vice Admiral Spruance conducted this action with daring strategy and brilliant employment of the units of this command. The expeditious completion of this vital operation under his forceful leadership assured success in opening the Central Pacific Area to the United States Forces."
Details:
This award was obtained in the form of an Gold Star to be worn on the ribbon of the first award.
Distinguished Service Medal - Navy/USMC
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Rank:
Vice Admiral (Vice-admiral)
Unit:
Pacific Fleet, U.S. Navy (Pacific Fleet, U.S. Navy)
Action:
Citation:
"For exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility as Chief of Staff and later as Deputy Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, while serving on the staff of Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, from 18 June 1942 to 5 August 1943. During this period of vital operations in the highly important Pacific Area, Admiral Spruance exercised sound judgment, keen foresight and expert administrative ability in carrying out his many and varied duties and, by his tireless effort and thorough comprehension of the tasks assigned him, contributed materially to increasing the tempo of the war against Japan. His forceful leadership and steadfast devotion to duty throughout a difficult period were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service."
Details:
This award was obtained in the form of a second Gold Star to be worn on the ribbon of the first award.
Distinguished Service Medal - Navy/USMC
Period:
Second World War (1939-1945)
Details:
With Fleet Clasp.
American Defence Service Medal

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