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Bronze Star Medal (BSM)

The Bronze Star Medal was officially instituted by Executive Order 9419 on February 4th, 1944. It was based on the idea of Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder in 1943. He had launched the thought that it was good for the morale of the military when there was a decoration that could be awarded by Captains of a Company or Battery to the personnel who served under their command. Colonel Reeder saw this medal as the ground version of the Air Medal and first introduced the name "Ground Medal". At first the decoration was to be instituted with the U.S. Navy to be given to ground and surface personnel for heroic or meritorious deeds. For unknown reasons the institution did not occur. The idea was picked up by General George C. Marshall who wrote a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The president instituted the medal the very next day.

The decoration could be awarded to any military who, serving within or together with the army of the United States after 6th December 1941, decorating himself by heoric or meritorious deeds as military, not participating in air operations, during military operations against an armed enemy or during an armed conflict in which the United States was not participating as a beligirent. The decoration could be awarded for the discribed heroic actions, not sufficient to be awarded the Silver Star or for meritorious actions or meritorious acting of service, which did not qualify for the awarding of the Legion of Merit. In 1947 the possibilities for awarding were enlarged. From that moment on the medal could also be awarded to any member of the United States Army that were mentioned in orders after December 6th, 1941 or who had received a certificate for exceptional service in goundbattle against an armed enemy between December 7th, 1941 and September 2nd, 1945 or who’s merit could be proven by documents dated before July 1st, 1947. This made it possible to award the Bronze Star to any person who had received the Combat Infantryman Badge or the Combat Medical Badge.
The Bronze Star can also be obtained by veterans or next of kinn. Military that took part in the struggle on the Philippines between December 7th, 1941 and May,10th 1942 could receive the medal when the action took place on Luzon, the Bataan peninsula or the Harbour Defences on Corregidor Island and were entitled to the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Military who had received the Purple Heart during the early days of the Second World War specifically for merit and not for wounds could in some occasions also exchange the Purple Heart for the Bronze Star. To any foreign soldier that fought in close coöperation with the United States Army, the decoration could also be awarded.

The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of Bailey, Banks and Biddle who also designed the Silver Star. The decoration measures 1,5 inch (38 mm) over all. In the middle there can be found another bronze star with a diametre of 3/16 inch (4,8 mm). All radials in the centre of both stars continue in one each other. The back bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" and a space to ingrave the recipients name.

The medal hangs on a ribbon with a square loop and rounded corners. The ribbon measures 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) wide. Left and right can be fond a 1/32 inch (1 mm) wide white line, followed to the inside by a scarlet 9/16 inch (14 mm) broad band. In the middel can be fond an ultramarine blue band measuring 1/8 inch (3 mm) flanked by two 1/32 inch (1 mm) lines.

Every next Bronze Star awarded was to be shown by a bronze oak leaf cluster (US Army, Air Corps and Air Force) or a golden star (US Navy, Marines and Coast Guard). At every fifth award, the bronze and golden were replaced by a a silver oak leaf cluster or silver star. A bronze "V" for "Valor" was awarded when the Bronze Star was received for heoism in battle, thus distincting the award from the Bronze Stars warded for merit. This "V" was introduced in 1945. The action it was to be awarded for had to be of significant value. Only one "V" was permitted to be worn on the ribbon.

Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.* September 15th, 1914
† September 4th, 1974

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Adams, Lucian* October 26th, 1922
† March 31st, 2003
Plot: AI Grave: 555

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Adler, Samuel L.† April 20th, 1945
Plot: F Row: 11 Grave: 26

Grid List
Abbott, Edgar R.† June 17th, 1944
Plot: C Row: 16 Grave: 30

Abney, Grady* 1916
† September 20th, 1945
Plot: A Row: 12 Grave: 19

Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.* September 15th, 1914
† September 4th, 1974

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Acheson, Viscount, Archibald* January 14th, 1911
† February 17th, 1966

Adamkoski, Frank Jr.† January 17th, 1945

Adams, Donald R.* February 20th, 1920
† September 20th, 1944

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Adams, Jonathan E., Jr. "Jock"* September 8th, 1917
† September 20th, 1984

Adams, Lucian* October 26th, 1922
† March 31st, 2003
Plot: AI Grave: 555

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Adler, Samuel L.† April 20th, 1945
Plot: F Row: 11 Grave: 26

Ahad, Iman Marajukin L.* April 9th, 1918
† December 25th, 1971

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Aho, Edward W.† March 1st, 1946

Aiello, James Joseph* August 27th, 1912

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Aingell, Yaha* February 28th, 1921
† December 30th, 1943

Aker, Fred T.† April 17th, 1945

Albright, Barry E.* March 8th, 1918
† November 5th, 1950

Alexander, Mark James* January 23rd, 1911
† May 21st, 2004

Alfonso, Jafet* 1918
† September 20th, 1944

Allen, Doniphan Monroe "Don"* August 5th, 1911
† November 29th, 1944

Alterio, Ernest* June 9th, 1912
† December 28th, 2003

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Altomare, Eugene† November 5th, 1943

Amerman, Walter Gordon Dr. (US Army)* November 7th, 1919
† December 28th, 1988

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Anderson, Beauford T. "Andy"* July 6th, 1922
† November 7th, 1996

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Anderson, Clarence Franklin* July 19th, 1918
† October 10th, 1993

Anderson, Clarence Leland* December 1st, 1913
† July 8th, 1944

Anderson, James H.* April 1920

Anderson, Rudolph Y.† March 30th, 1945

Andreas, Jack† July 11th, 1943

Androsky, John P.† October 5th, 1944

Annin, Robert E., III† March 30th, 1945

Antonioli, Louis L.† March 26th, 2005

Antrim, Richard Nott* December 17th, 1907
† March 8th, 1969
Plot: 35 Grave: 2613

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Appleby, Gene J.* September 1st, 1914
† September 17th, 1944

Appleby, Gene J.† September 17th, 1944

Arkema, Kenneth J.* September 4th, 1919
† September 11th, 2003

Arledge, William H.† October 6th, 1944

Armellino, John Ralph* February 21st, 1921
† September 17th, 2004

Arnold, William Howard* January 18th, 1901
† September 30th, 1976
Plot: 13 Row: A Grave: 7

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Arzel, François, Marie* February 25th, 1921
† November 20th, 1944

Ashman, Charles H. (US Army)* March 1st, 1924
† May 21st, 1945
Plot: C Row: 29 Grave: 73

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Ashton, Clarence Mcallister* February 14th, 1923
† September 4th, 2011
Plot: CC3 Row: 2 Grave: 15

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Askren, William V.† September 20th, 1944

Astier De La Vigerie, d', Henri* September 11th, 1897
† October 10th, 1952

Atkins, Barry Kennedy* August 2nd, 1911
† November 15th, 2005
Plot: 66 Grave: 6366

Atkins, Thomas Eugene* February 5th, 1921
† September 15th, 1999

Aurness, James King* May 26th, 1923
† June 3rd, 2011

Aurness, James King "Jim"* May 26th, 1923
† June 3rd, 2011

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Azbill, Cecil Albert* January 15th, 1918
† November 11th, 1994

Sources