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Bronze Star Medal (BSM)

The Bronze Star Medal was officially instituted by Executive Order 9419 on February 4th, 1944. It was based on the idea of Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder in 1943. He had launched the thought that it was good for the morale of the military when there was a decoration that could be awarded by Captains of a Company or Battery to the personnel who served under their command. Colonel Reeder saw this medal as the ground version of the Air Medal and first introduced the name "Ground Medal". At first the decoration was to be instituted with the U.S. Navy to be given to ground and surface personnel for heroic or meritorious deeds. For unknown reasons the institution did not occur. The idea was picked up by General George C. Marshall who wrote a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The president instituted the medal the very next day.

The decoration could be awarded to any military who, serving within or together with the army of the United States after 6th December 1941, decorating himself by heoric or meritorious deeds as military, not participating in air operations, during military operations against an armed enemy or during an armed conflict in which the United States was not participating as a beligirent. The decoration could be awarded for the discribed heroic actions, not sufficient to be awarded the Silver Star or for meritorious actions or meritorious acting of service, which did not qualify for the awarding of the Legion of Merit. In 1947 the possibilities for awarding were enlarged. From that moment on the medal could also be awarded to any member of the United States Army that were mentioned in orders after December 6th, 1941 or who had received a certificate for exceptional service in goundbattle against an armed enemy between December 7th, 1941 and September 2nd, 1945 or who’s merit could be proven by documents dated before July 1st, 1947. This made it possible to award the Bronze Star to any person who had received the Combat Infantryman Badge or the Combat Medical Badge.
The Bronze Star can also be obtained by veterans or next of kinn. Military that took part in the struggle on the Philippines between December 7th, 1941 and May,10th 1942 could receive the medal when the action took place on Luzon, the Bataan peninsula or the Harbour Defences on Corregidor Island and were entitled to the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Military who had received the Purple Heart during the early days of the Second World War specifically for merit and not for wounds could in some occasions also exchange the Purple Heart for the Bronze Star. To any foreign soldier that fought in close coöperation with the United States Army, the decoration could also be awarded.

The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of Bailey, Banks and Biddle who also designed the Silver Star. The decoration measures 1,5 inch (38 mm) over all. In the middle there can be found another bronze star with a diametre of 3/16 inch (4,8 mm). All radials in the centre of both stars continue in one each other. The back bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" and a space to ingrave the recipients name.

The medal hangs on a ribbon with a square loop and rounded corners. The ribbon measures 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) wide. Left and right can be fond a 1/32 inch (1 mm) wide white line, followed to the inside by a scarlet 9/16 inch (14 mm) broad band. In the middel can be fond an ultramarine blue band measuring 1/8 inch (3 mm) flanked by two 1/32 inch (1 mm) lines.

Every next Bronze Star awarded was to be shown by a bronze oak leaf cluster (US Army, Air Corps and Air Force) or a golden star (US Navy, Marines and Coast Guard). At every fifth award, the bronze and golden were replaced by a a silver oak leaf cluster or silver star. A bronze "V" for "Valor" was awarded when the Bronze Star was received for heoism in battle, thus distincting the award from the Bronze Stars warded for merit. This "V" was introduced in 1945. The action it was to be awarded for had to be of significant value. Only one "V" was permitted to be worn on the ribbon.

Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.* September 15th, 1914
† September 4th, 1974

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Adams, Lucian* October 26th, 1922
† March 31st, 2003
Plot: AI Grave: 555

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Adler, Samuel L.† April 20th, 1945
Plot: F Row: 11 Grave: 26

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Athens, Everett John "Johny" 00-05-1994 
Askren, William V. 20-09-1944 
Appleby, Gene J. 17-09-1944 
Alfonso, Jafet00-00-191820-09-1944 
Appleby, Gene J.01-09-191417-09-1944 
Armitstead, Herbert   
Arkema, Kenneth J.04-09-191911-09-2003 
Anderson, Robert Washington09-08-1921 more 
Acheson, Viscount, Archibald14-01-191117-02-1966 
Appleton, Ernest Philip   
Arnold, William Howard18-01-190130-09-1976more 
Anderson, James H.00-04-1920  
Ayers, Alfred   
Allen, Doniphan Monroe "Don"05-08-191129-11-1944 
Amaral, Noah R   
Alvis, Samuel   
Ashton, Clarence Mcallister14-02-192304-09-2011more 
Allen, Edgel  more 
Ayers, William E.   
Anderson, George Calvin   
Antonioli, Louis L. 26-03-2005 
Albertini, Maurice Marc   
Adler, Samuel L. 20-04-1945 
Aurness, James King "Jim"26-05-192303-06-2011more 
Allen, John E.   
Anderson, Clifford, Jr.   
Angel, Camillus   
Aurness, James King26-05-192303-06-2011 
Alexander, Mark James23-01-191121-05-2004 
Adams, Donald R.20-02-192020-09-1944more 
Adams, Jonathan E., Jr. "Jock"08-09-191720-09-1984 
Abbott, Edgar R. 17-06-1944 
Albright, Barry E.08-03-191805-11-1950 
Anderson, Norman A.   
Altif, Albert   
Anderson, Dean   
Azbill, Cecil Albert15-01-191811-11-1994 
Anderson, Bernard H.   
Astoria, Arthur J.   
Ahad, Iman Marajukin L.09-04-191825-12-1971more 
Abney, Grady00-00-191620-09-1945 
Arterburn, Nello R.   
Ashmore, Vester   
Arasin, Joseph   
Anderson, Leroy H.   
Auvil, Daniel M., Jr.   
Alterio, Ernest09-06-191228-12-2003more 
Alessandro, Joseph   
Ayres, Harold B.   
Allen, Ueal F.   
Armstrong, John F. "Jack"   
Aingell, Yaha28-02-192130-12-1943 
Aaron, Henry C.   
Aiello, James Joseph27-08-1912 more 
Adams, Robert D.   
Anderson, Raymond J.   
Abbott, Lysle I.   
Alexander, Merrill S.   
Aubrey, Gordon K.   
Adamkoski, Frank Jr. 17-01-1945 
Armellino, John Ralph21-02-192117-09-2004 
Astier De La Vigerie, d', Henri11-09-189710-10-1952 
Arzel, François, Marie25-02-192120-11-1944 
Allen, Robert R.   
Alexander, Richard D.   
Ashman, Charles H. (US Army)01-03-192421-05-1945more 
Androsky, John P. 05-10-1944 
Alexander, Robert O.   
Anderson, James M.   
Alger, Harold L.   
Andreas, Jack 11-07-1943 
Anderson, William A.   
Amerman, Walter Gordon Dr. (US Army)07-11-191928-12-1988more 
Atkinson, Robert W.   
Atkinson, Marvin E.   
Asper, Mauria H.   
Andrews, Peter   
Ambrose, Louis M.   
Anker, Leonard A.   
Argall, Thomas P.   
Apelgren, Edwin   
Anton, Calvin K.   
Anderson, Clarence Franklin19-07-191810-10-1993 
Anderson, Alan G.   
Alvaro, William   
Alford, Paul R.   
Alexander, Earl D   
Aho, Edward W. 01-03-1946 
Annin, Robert E., III 30-03-1945 
Anderson, Rudolph Y. 30-03-1945 
Arnold, Edwin Y.   
Arndt, Daniel   
Anglin, Suel C.   
Angerer, Bennie B.   
Anderson, Roy   
Alonge, Sam F.   
Allard, Howard A.   
Adlard, Ithel R.   
Adams, Steve   
Ackerman, Walther R. (US Army)   
Alston, Augustus Howard Jr.   
Ambro, Eugene Allan   
Allmon, Mervin Wilcox   
Anderson, David   
Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.15-09-191404-09-1974more 
Atkins, Barry Kennedy02-08-191115-11-2005 
Aker, Fred T. 17-04-1945 
Arledge, William H. 06-10-1944 
Altomare, Eugene 05-11-1943 
Anderson, Amel   
Anderson, Clarence Leland01-12-191308-07-1944 
Atkins, Thomas Eugene05-02-192115-09-1999 
Antrim, Richard Nott17-12-190708-03-1969more 
Anderson, Beauford T. "Andy"06-07-192207-11-1996more 
Adams, Lucian26-10-192231-03-2003more 

Sources