Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Wabel, Lewis N.   
Waddell, James   
Wadderman, Andrew K.   
Wade, Robert   
Wadkins, William Bernice   
Wagner, Arthur   
Wagner, Erwin J.   
Wagner, William H., Jr.   
Wagoner, Leonard H.   
Wahlstrom, Paul Johan   
Waidner, George I. A.   
Wainwright, Philip N.   
Wakeham, J. Donald   
Walden, James W.   
Waldreon, John Chlarles   
Waldrop, Leonard Ernest   
Walker, Daniel V.   
Walker, Francis D., Jr.   
Walker, Frank C.   
Walker, Frank R.   
Walker, Gordon Keith20-05-192107-11-1943 
Walker, John D.   
Walker, John H.   
Walker, John T.   
Walker, William M.   
Wall, Lester Seneca, Jr.   
Wallace, Fred Martin 14-05-1945 
Wallace, John George18-02-1919  
Wallace, Thomas Garrow   
Walley, James E.   
Wallof, Edward J.   
Walraven, Albert T., Jr.   
Walsh, Quentin R.02-02-191018-05-2000 
Walsh, Richard J., Jr.   
Walt, Lewis William16-02-191326-03-1989 
Walter, Enos S.   
Walters, Richard Beck   
Walton, Charles R.   
Walton, Merritt C.18-12-191607-08-1942more 
Wantuck, John J.   
Ward, Lyttleton T.   
Ward, Maurice Andrew   
Ward, Norvell G.   
Ward, Paul Junior   
Ward, Robert Elwin McCraner02-02-1914  
Warder, Frederick Burdett   
Ware, Charles Rollins   
Ware, Robert Macky   
Warner, Arthur Trumbull   
Warner, Gordon   
Warner, Richard D.   
Warren, Forest B.   
Washburn, George Arthur Tappin   
Washernski, Joseph   
Wassell, Corydon McAlmont   
Waterman, Andrew Kenneth   
Watkins, Edward Larkin   
Watson, John E.   
Watson, Thomas A   
Watts, Charles Edward   
Watts, Dale E.   
Wdowiak, Stanley Edward   
Wear, Robert C.   
Wearman, Leonard M.   
Weary, Neal Scott   
Weaver, Curtis A.   
Webb, Wilbur Butcher   
Weber, Bruce S.   
Weber, Frederick Thomas   
Weber, George A.   
Weber, John Frederick   
Weber, John Frederick   
Webster, Clinton R.   
Weickhardt, Charles Eugene, Jr.   
Weil, Edwin John   
Weiss, Carl W.   
Weiss, Donald F.04-08-190607-07-1976 
Weiss, George L.   
Welch, Charles E.   
Welch, Gordon Albert   
Welch, Vivian Warren   
Welch, Warren W.   
Wellen, William Henry   
Weller, Oscar Arthur   
Wellings, Joseph Harold   
Wells, Dean A.   
Wells, Erskine Watkins01-12-1917  
Wells, John K.   
Wellwood, Robert Elsworth   
Welsh, John Daniel   
Wendt, Edward Reynold, Jr.   
Wensinger, Walter W.   
Werts, Charles Luther   
West, Charles A.   
West, Douglas Halling   
West, Frank Russell   
West, James Charles   
West, John Norman   
West, Philip Leonard   
West, Theodore Gerard   
West, William R.   
Westholm, Rollin E.   
Westin, Howard S.   
Weyler, George L.   
Weymouth, Ralph   
Whalen, Joseph J.   
Whaley, Dale E.   
Whaling, William J.   
Wheeler, Algie J.   
Wheeler, Everett Logue30-05-192217-08-2007 
Wheeler, Kenneth E.   
Whelpley, Gordon Brittain   
Wherry, John H.   
Whitaker, Reuben Thornton   
White, Arthur J.   
White, David C.   
White, Donald M.   
White, George Oliver   
White, Harold   
White, Harry Clifford, Jr.   
White, Paul   
White, Philip R.   
White, Robert Eugene   
Whitford, Paul Hobart   
Whiting, Kenneth22-07-188124-04-1943 
Whitley, J. W.   
Whitney, John Perry   
Whitney, Rintoul T.   
Whitt, Forest   
Whitten, Sumner H.   
Whittier, Mark T.   
Wicklander, Edgar B.   
Wicklander, Raymond George   
Widdecke, Charles F.   
Widhelm, William John   
Wieber, Carlos W.   
Wiegand, Jack Dudley   
Wiehardt, Vincent H. 21-11-1943 
Wiemann, William E.   
Wiese, Norman A.   
Wilbourne, William W.   
Wilcox, Nicholas A.   
Wilcox, Richard S.   
Wilcox, Russell Stover   
Wileman, William W.   
Wiley, Herbert Victor   
Wilfong, John Lester   
Wilheit, Philip Arthur   
Wilhoit, William L.28-04-1923  
Wilke, Jack Winton13-06-1919  
Wilkins, Charles W.   
Wilkinson, Edwin R.   
Willett, Francis M., Jr.19-05-192300-10-1985 
Willett, Kenneth M.   
Williams, Bruce Wade   
Williams, Clair T.   
Williams, Evan Kenneth   
Williams, George S.19-08-1923  
Williams, Harry B.   
Williams, James Berch10-10-1918  
Williams, Joe Wylie, Jr.   
Williams, John George   
Williams, Joseph Warford, Jr.   
Williams, Maxie R.   
Williams, Owen Foch   
Williams, Robert H. (USMC-1st MPB)   
Williams, Robert Pershing   
Williams, Wiley Thomas   
Williams, William Thomas  more 
Williamson, Edward James   
Williamson, Francis Thomas   
Williamson, John Leon05-11-192112-11-1942 
Williamson, Leon M.   
Williamson, Thomas Binney   
Williamson, Thomas F.   
Willingham, Joseph H., Jr.   
Willis, James Sturgis 06-04-1945 
Willis, Jasper   
Willis, Meade H., Jr.   
Willis, William L.   
Willy, Wilford John   
Wilson, Carter L., Jr.   
Wilson, David Louis   
Wilson, Donald Lawrence   
Wilson, George J.   
Wilson, George Rees   
Wilson, Ralph E.   
Wilson, Ray E., Jr.   
Wilson, William W., Jr.   
Wilton, Jerry Barnes   
Wiltse, Lloyd Jerome   
Wiltsie, Irving D.   
Winchell, Albert Waldo   
Winchester, Augustus H.   
Wingfield, John Davis   
Wingo, Peroneau B.   
Winius, Albert Henry   
Winsor, Andrew N.   
Winters, Robert La Verne   
Winters, Theodore Hugh, Jr.11-03-191325-04-2008more 
Wintle, Jack William   
Wirth, John L.   
Wirth, Junior H.   
Wirtz, Peyton L.   
Wise, Charles L.15-11-1925  
Wiseman, Osborne B.   
Wiser, Milard H.   
Wisniewski, Edward L.   
Witkowski, Henry J.   
Wlasuik, William John   
Wodell, Webster Page   
Woerner, John Joseph   
Wogan, Thomas L.   
Wolf, Donald W.   
Wolvington, William H.   
Wood, Chester Clark   
Wood, Edward Eugene   
Wood, George Orr   
Wood, Harry   
Wood, Hugh, Jr.   
Wood, Hunter, Jr.   
Wood, Joseph E.   
Wood, Lloyd Nelson   
Wood, Ralph K.   
Woodhull, Roger B.   
Woodruff, Thomas Joseph   
Woods, Thomas Altus   
Woodside, Darrell D.   
Woodson, Jeff Davis   
Woodson, William Howell   
Woollen, William Stone   
Woolsey, George R.   
Wordell, Malcolm Taber   
Worden, Donald Doris   
Worley, Harry W.   
Wornham, Thomas A.   
Worthington, Rokbert K.R.   
Woyke, Max E. E.   
Wrenn, George L.   
Wright, Barney V.   
Wright, Carleton H.   
Wright, Frank J.   
Wright, Gaydon Dee   
Wright, Jack Lovell   
Wright, John D.   
Wright, John Wesley, Jr.   
Wright, Richard Lee   
Wright, Spencer Downs   
Wright, Wendell Philip   
Wright, Whitney   
Wright, William Alexander   
Wright, William Leslie   
Wygal, Edward R.   
Wylie, William Naylor   
Wyrick, James Woodrow