Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

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Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Sabini, John A.   
Sachs, Benjamin10-11-191124-11-1943 
Sackett, Earl L.   
Sadler, Daniel, Jr.   
Sailer, Joseph, Jr.   
Sallenger, Asbury Hilliard21-08-191705-02-2010 
Salzman, Edward E.   
Samaras, Thomas Dimitri   
Sampsell, Bruce Emmett   
Sandbron, Francis R.   
Sandburg, Donald L.   
Sanders, Lewis Ben   
Sanders, William H., II   
Sanders, William Henry, Jr.   
Sandison, Gordon T.   
Sandoval, William B.   
Sands, Charles S.   
Sands, Eugene Thomas22-02-1907  
Sands, James E.   
Sandy, Donald Jackson   
Sanguedolce, Silvio   
Sarsfield, Eugene Sylvester19-04-190210-07-1943 
Satterfield, Karl B.   
Sauer, Edward Paul   
Saum, Irving Randolph, Jr.   
Saunders, Laverne G.   
Saunders, Raymond O.   
Saunders, Willard A.   
Savadkin, Lawrence   
Savage, Francis J.   
Savage, Merritt M.   
Savitz, Charles William   
Sawyer, Eugene B.30-12-1921  
Scanland, Francis W., Jr.   
Schaal, Albert Amiel, Jr.   
Schacht, Kenneth George   
Schade, Arnold Frederic   
Schaller, William J.   
Schatz, Delmar Alfred   
Schechter, Irving   
Scheff, Lester Dane   
Scheidleman, Cedric J.   
Scheufele, Carl   
Scheurer, Ralph Edward   
Schindler, Walter Gabriel   
Schlegel, Charles Frederick04-04-1920  
Schlegel, Paul Wahl   
Schlendering, Harold G.   
Schlosser, Ralph J.   
Schmid, Albert Andrew "Al"20-10-192002-12-1982 
Schmidt, Joseph   
Schmidt, Maximilian G.   
Schmille, Donald E.   
Schnabel, Charles William   
Schneider, Merlin F.   
Schneider, Robert G.   
Schneider, Tony Frederic   
Schoch, Edwin Foresman   
Schoeni, Walter Paul   
Schrier, Harold George17-10-191603-06-1971 
Schuler, Frederick   
Schulke, Edward Henry   
Schulte, Joseph O.B. "Ott"02-01-191721-11-1943more 
Schultheis, Anthony Joseph   
Schultz, Arthur Joseph, Jr.   
Schultz, Conrad A.   
Schultz, Thomas A.   
Schumacher, Robert E.   
Schuncke, George William   
Schwarzwalder, Alan E.   
Schwerin, William E.   
Scott, Frank V., Jr.   
Scott, Jack   
Scott, John Addison17-03-190600-00-1986 
Scott, Neal A.   
Seagraves, Sidney Clark, Jr.   
Seaman, Allen Lang21-12-191601-05-1944 
Seaman, Donald F.   
Seaman, James B.   
Searcy, John M.   
Searle, George B.   
Searles, John M.   
Sears, Harrry E.   
Seaward, Eugene Trefethern   
Seback, Joseph   
Seckel, Albert, Jr.   
Seckinger, Neil V.   
Secrest, Langdon R.   
Sedell, Thomas Roy   
Seipel, Bernard J.   
Seiverling, William F., Jr.   
Seivwright, George, Jr.   
Selby, Frank Gordon   
Selby, Robert B.   
Self, Howard D.   
Self, Larry Russel   
Seligman, Morton Tinslar01-07-189509-07-1967 
Selk, Jack L.   
Sell, Roy C.   
Sellstrom, Edward Robert19-07-191621-06-1942 
Semmes, Benedict J., Jr.   
Sergo, Mike E.   
Settle, Thomas G. W.   
Sganga, Joseph T.   
Shaffner, Walter F.   
Shaheen, Albert J.   
Shaker, Conrad F.   
Shands, Courtney   
Shank, Dr. Lawton E.   
Shanklin, Elliott W.   
Shanley, James V. 04-10-1944 
Shannon, William L.   
Shapley, Alan09-02-190313-05-1973more 
Sharp, Stanley James, Jr.   
Sharpe, Virgil G.26-02-1919  
Shattuck, Charles Wilson   
Shaughnessey, Francis   
Shawcross, William Henley   
Shawn, Joseph W.   
Shea, John J.   
Shea, Maurice William   
Shearon, Bruce Cleveland30-03-1909  
Sheedy, Daniel Crysdale   
Sheehan, Charles M.   
Sheehan, Joseph D.   
Sheipe, Robert G.   
Shelburne, Charles W.   
Shelby, Edward E.   
Sheley, Richard Graham   
Shelton, Dale E.   
Shelton, James Arnold   
Shepard, Andrew Gilbert   
Shepard, Evan Tyler   
Shepard, Tazewell T., Jr.   
Shepherd, Lemuel Cornick, Jr.10-02-189606-08-1990more 
Shepperd, Charles Meredeth   
Sheridan, Eugene   
Sheridan, John Grace   
Sherman, Forrest P.   
Sherman, Frederick Carl "Ted"27-05-188800-07-1957more 
Sherman, Samuel R.   
Sherrill, Hugh Virgil   
Sherwood, Gordon Alvin   
Sherwood, James E.   
Shields, Arthur Virgil   
Shields, Ellis Harry   
Shiels, Hugh A.   
Shifley, Ralph Louis   
Shimek, George D.   
Shirley, James Alexander   
Shively, Allen E.   
Shoemaker, George C.   
Shoemaker, William G.   
Shootman, Charles Roscoe   
Short, Wallace C., Jr.   
Shrauger, William Herbert   
Shriver, Charles W.   
Shumann, Frank E., Jr.   
Shumway, DeWitt Wood   
Shumway, James McBride   
Shumway, John E.   
Shupe, Willard L.   
Sieber, Edward A.   
Sieglaff, William Bernard   
Sigman, William R.H.   
Sileo, Nicholas   
Silverthorn, Merwin Hancock22-09-189614-08-1985more 
Simmers, James T.   
Simmonds, Wesley P.   
Simmons, Alva A.   
Simmons, Clyde A.   
Simonelli, Orazio   
Simonson, Harvey L.   
Simpler, LeRoy Coard   
Simpson, Carter B.   
Simpson, Robert E.   
Simpson, Rodger Whitten   
Sims, Gelzer Loyall   
Singleton, D. Arnold   
Singleton, Robert M.   
Sipprell, James Ernest   
Sistrunk, Vermon J.   
Sizemore, James L.   
Skinner, Charles Allen   
Skinner, Lyle Mertton   
Skinner, Robert W., III   
Skon, Warren Andrew29-10-191919-01-2012 
Slagle, John W.   
Slater, Frank Olga19-12-192012-11-1942 
Slaughter, Orvan S. 22-11-1943more 
Sleeper, Leroy M.   
Slighton, John Day   
Slocum, Harry Browning   
Slusser, John Harvey   
Small, Ernest Gregor05-11-188827-12-1944 
Smallwood, George H.   
Smestad, Delmer L.   
Smiadak, Edward   
Smiley, Vincent   
Smith, Alex B.   
Smith, Allen Wesley   
Smith, Chester Carl   
Smith, Daniel Fletcher, Jr.   
Smith, Dexter Walden   
Smith, Douglas Elwin   
Smith, Edward L., Jr.   
Smith, Eugene, Jr.   
Smith, Francis K.   
Smith, George O.   
Smith, Harold Francis   
Smith, Harold J.   
Smith, Harold Page   
Smith, Harry L.21-06-191618-08-2007 
Smith, Henry Evans, Jr.   
Smith, Howard E.   
Smith, Ivan T.   
Smith, James Stuart, Jr.   
Smith, James T.   
Smith, John J.   
Smith, Joseph G.   
Smith, Julian Constable11-09-188505-11-1975more 
Smith, Kenneth William   
Smith, Kent Rhyne   
Smith, Leonard L.27-04-191704-06-1942 
Smith, Norman Clark   
Smith, Ralph Arthur   
Smith, Richard Philomen   
Smith, Robert E.18-09-1916  
Smith, Robert Gilmour03-11-1920  
Smith, Robert Hall   
Smith, Roger E. 21-07-1944 
Smith, Stephen Burdette   
Smith, Walton Wiley   
Smith, William Arnold   
Smoot, Roland Nesbit07-05-190113-02-1984more 
Smyth, Jimmie01-03-192425-04-2006 
Snedeker, Edward W.   
Snell, Clifton Edward   
Snieckus, Bronislow A.   
Snowden, Ernest M.   
Snyder, James L.   
Snyder, Thomas J.   
Soli, Hartman Alvin   
Somers, Charles W.   
Somerville, Ronald Lee   
Sonnenberg, Eugene Peter   
Sorensen, Charles Henry   
Sorensen, William T.   
Spalding, Ralph D., Jr.   
Spanagel, Donald D. J.   
Spangenberg, Kenneth Jerome   
Spazzafero, John A.   
Specht, Lyle E.26-11-1918  
Speidel, John Poor   
Sperry, Edwin   
Spillane, John J.   
Spotts, Melvin John   
Sprague, Clifton Albert Frederick "Ziggy"08-01-189611-04-1955 
Sprague, James Reneau   
Sprague, Thomas L.   
Springer, Frank H.   
Spruance, Raymond Ames03-07-188613-12-1969more 
St. John, Bernard Joseph   
Stacy, Ray Joseph   
Stadler, Clement J.   
Staggs, William R.   
Stambaugh, Jack R. 22-11-1943 
Stamps, Clyde H.   
Standard, Charles Evert   
Stanford, Norman R.   
Stankus, Henry Walter   
Stapp, Donald H.   
Starkes, Carlton B.   
Starkweather, Mark W.   
Stauber, Van Gordon   
Stea, Anthony J.   
Stear, David Smiley   
Stearns, Robert Lloyd   
Steffen, Harlan S,   
Steffenhagen, Lawrence F.16-10-191225-08-1996 
Steiger, Earl Henry   
Steinaker, Donald B.   
Steinmetz, Everett Hartwell   
Stella, Emil Bernard   
Stephan, Charles Robert   
Stephan, Edward Clark   
Stephens, Charles T., Jr.   
Stephenson, James L.   
Sterling, Barney   
Sterrie, Norman Anderson  more 
Stetson, Thomas Halliday   
Stevens, Charles Zollicoffer, III   
Stevens, Clyde Benjamin, Jr.   
Stevens, Paul F.   
Stevens, Wesley H.   
Stevenson, Harry C.   
Stevenson, Robert E.   
Stevenson, William A.   
Stevenson, William D.   
Steward, Jerry Alexander   
Stewart, Francis E.   
Stewart, James Seth   
Stickell, John Harlan   
Stiesberg, Frederick Max29-09-191229-05-2004 
Stigler, Stephen L.   
Stimpson, Charles R.   
Stimson, Paul C.   
Stokely, George David   
Stokes, Thomas M.   
Stone, George L. P., Jr.   
Stone, Lowell T.   
Stone, Reid Wentworth   
Stoops, Thomas M.   
Stormes, Max Clifford   
Storms, Earl La Von   
Stott, Frederick A. "Fireball"21-08-191701-12-2006 
Stouffer, George Oscar   
Stout, Charles B.   
Stout, Earl Lincoln, Jr.   
Stout, Herold Franklin   
Stout, Robert Franklin 04-03-1945 
Stovall, William S., Jr.   
Stradley, Price Roe   
Stranahan, James A., Jr.   
Strand, Lowell H.   
Strantrz, Stanley A.   
Strean, Bernard Max   
Stredney, Albert Daniel   
Street, George Levick III27-07-191326-02-2000more 
Streeter, Eugene Jarvis, Jr.   
Strickland, Young Edward   
Strong, Stockton Birney   
Stuart, Algie M., Jr.   
Stulce, Edmund J.   
Stump, Felix Budwell   
Styles, Rallph E.   
Suesens, Richard Wayne30-04-191504-06-1942 
Sugarman, Jack   
Sullivan, Dennis Joseph26-09-1903  
Sullivan, Richard E.   
Sullivan, Steven G.   
Summers, Paul E.   
Sumpter, William Benjamin   
Svanda, Victor   
Swan, Alonzo A.   
Swanberger, Walter W.   
Swanson, Chandler Waterman28-03-191506-12-2003more 
Swanson, Clinton V.   
Swanson, Leonard R.   
Swarthout, Neil F.   
Sweeney, James W.   
Sweeney, John B.   
Swenning, Gust, Jr.   
Swenson, Lyman Knute23-10-189213-11-1942more 
Swentzel, Livingston, Jr.   
Swinburne, Edwin R.   
Swint, George, III   
Swisher, William H.   
Switzer, George D.   
Sykes, James B.   
Symmes, John C. C.19-08-191701-02-1968