Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Laffan, John James   
Lahodney William J.   
Lamade, John D.   
Lamb, Charles T.   
Lamb, William E.   
Lamberson, William Lacey   
Lambert, Valdemar Greene05-04-191518-08-2008 
Lampman, Leland R.   
Landes, Robert Jellison   
Lane, Charles Smith   
Lang, James P.   
Lang, Lawrence A.   
Langdon, Ned W.   
Langdon, Richard H.   
Langford, N.J.   
Langrall, James Harker   
Lanigan, John R.   
Laning, Caleb B.   
Lanphier, Thomas O., Jr.   
Lape, Eugene J.R.   
LaPrade, Robert M.   
LaQuintano, James Joseph   
Larkin, Edward William, Jr.   
Laroe, Edward Terhune   
Larsen, Harold H.   
Larsen, Leif Walther   
Larsen, Leor B.   
Larsen, Orrin K.   
Larson, Nils Rodney18-12-191321-04-1976 
Lasco, Donald   
Latch, Darius W.   
Latham, Richard Clark   
Latta, De Vere, Frank10-01-190904-05-1945more 
Lattin, Jack Malcolm   
Laub, Robert Edward   
Lauderdale, Claude E.   
Laughon, Willard R.   
Lautrup, George W., Jr.   
Lawley, Alvin Wilfred26-08-191718-06-1945 
Lawrence, Henry G., Jr.   
Lawrence, John Creig03-11-191711-05-2002 
Lawton, Ernest James, Jr.   
Laz, LeRoy Lester   
Leahy, William Daniel06-05-187519-07-1959 
Leake, Thomas Murray   
Leaper, John W.   
LeBlanc, Joseph G.   
LeCaptain, Bernhard   
Lecklider, Russell Paul   
Lee, Clyde Jameson   
Lee, Fitzhugh   
Lee, James Luther, Jr.08-09-1924  
Lee, James Richard   
Lee, John E.   
Lee, John Marshall14-10-1914  
Lee, John W.18-01-192013-03-1998 
Lee, Willis A., Jr.   
Leedom, Marvin Leroy   
Leeker, Wallace F.   
Leeper, Charles D.04-07-1924  
LeFrançois, Wilfred Sylvio00-00-190109-06-1952more 
Legg, James C.   
LeHardy, Louis M.   
Lemcke, Julius O.   
Lemmon, Rolla Stuart   
Lent, Willis Ashford "Pilly"05-01-190428-08-1959more 
Leonard, William Nicholas  more 
Leonard, William Richard, Jr.   
Leppla, John Arthur   
Lerch Alfred   
Leslie, Dale M.   
Leslie, John Carleton   
Leslie, Maxwell D.   
Lester, Kenna M.04-12-1915  
Lewellen, Bafforsd Edward   
Lewis, Donald   
Lewis, Milton   
Lewis, Victor A.   
Lewis, Wray C.   
Ley, Frederick C., Jr.   
Lidenberg, Ernest M.   
Lightner, Earl Fred   
Lilja, George 19-09-1944 
Lindblad, Carl J.   
Lindsay, Elvin Lester "Lin"25-06-192007-08-2007 
Lindsay, Elwwod Q.   
Lindsey, Eugene Elbert   
Lindstrom, Ross Alferd   
Line, John Herman   
Linn, Jack Bion   
Linsday, Bruce Albert   
Little, Edwin C.   
Little, James T.   
Littlefield, Jack   
Liversedge, Harry Bluett21-09-189425-11-1951 
Livesay, Melvin G.26-06-192111-11-1944 
Livesey, Benjamin R.   
Livezey, John C.   
Livingston, James Harold   
Lloyd, Rudolph   
Lloyd, William Rees   
Locke, Charles R.   
Locke, Chester M.   
Lodholz, Royce P.   
Loeffel, Glen B.   
Loesch, Gregory K.   
Loftis, Wallace G.   
Logan, John R., Jr.   
Logan, Samuel Moore   
Long, George L.   
Longazel, Michael18-02-1922  
Looney, Foster E.   
Looney, Milton Parker   
Lorenz, Edward George   
Lorenz, John D.   
Loud, Wayne R.   
Lough, John Cady   
Loughlin, Charles Elliott   
Louth, Harold Louis09-09-192128-12-1943 
Loverin, Ira G.   
Lowe, Edward Stuart23-05-1906 more 
Lowe, Frank L.   
Lowe, Harry James, Jr.   
Lowrance, Vernon L.   
Lowry, Frank J.   
Loy, Jackson Keith29-04-192212-11-1942 
Lucas, John D.   
Ludwig, David W.   
Luedmann, Carl Frederick   
Lumpkin, George T.   
Lurvey, Don Dexter   
Lutchkus, George F.   
Luther, Earl F., Jr.   
Luther, Hubert C. 20-11-1943 
Lyman, Robert C.   
Lynch, Frank C.27-10-1914  
Lynch, John Joseph21-10-191121-11-1988 
Lynch, Kevin Patrick25-01-1922  
Lynch, Richard Barr   
Lynes, Richard J.   
Lyth, Dale C.30-11-1919