Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

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Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Padberg, John William   
Paddock, Merlin N.15-03-191716-04-1945 
Page, John Donald   
Page, John Edward   
Pagel, Joseph Lloyd   
Paland, Richard Warren   
Palermo, Carlo   
Palmer, Fitzhugh Lee, Jr.   
Palmer, Frank L.   
Palmer, George Goldston   
Pancake, Lee Sylvester   
Panther, Richard D.   
Paquet, Freeman, Jr.   
Paredes, Osbaldo Rivera   
Parham, William B.   
Parish, Herman Olliff   
Parish, Warren Griffith   
Parker, Alton Enoch   
Parker, Edward Nelson   
Parker, Edwin B., Jr.   
Parker, Raymond D.   
Parker, Robert Brownwell   
Parker, Thaddeus   
Parker, Walter G.   
Parker, Wayne Albert   
Parker, William H.   
Parker, William Whiteford   
Parks, Floyd B.   
Parks, Lewis Cmith   
Parks, Verrill G.   
Parmelee, Erwin Clark   
Parmiley, Norman B.   
Parrish, Warren Coleman   
Parrott, John Oliver   
Parrott, Robert L.   
Parsons, Charles   
Paskoski, Joseph John   
Patrick, Goldsbrough Serpell   
Patterson, William Webb10-01-1924  
Pattie, Donald Archie09-04-191827-01-2014 
Pattison, William Joseph   
Pauk, John Frederick00-00-192500-06-2014 
Pauley, Chester, Jr.   
Paulos, Jim J.   
Paxton, Norman L.   
Payne, Frederick Rounsville, Jr.31-07-1911  
Payne, Owen   
Payne, Richard B.   
Paynter, William Kuen   
Pearce, Harry P.   
Peatross, Oscar F.   
Peck, George William   
Peiffer, Carl David   
Pendleton, Walton Barclay24-11-189709-12-1972 
Penland, Joe Robert   
Pennell, Edward S. 00-00-1998 
Penninger, Fred B.   
Pennoyer, Paul Geddes, Jr.   
Percy, George A.   
Percy, Gilbert   
Perkins, Charles E.   
Perrault, Howard E.   
Perry, Frank Chase   
Perry, John W.   
Perry, Lucas John   
Perry, William W., Jr.   
Peters, Dale L.   
Peters, James McClellan   
Petersen, John Donald   
Petersen, Wallis Frederick   
Peterson, Dale W.   
Peterson, Earl Donald   
Peterson, George Edward   
Peterson, Herbert Augustus   
Peterson, John D.   
Peterson, Richard Ward   
Peterson, Robert James   
Peterson, William Edgar, Jr.   
Petrie, Clarence E.   
Petritz, George K.   
Pettengill, Ralph   
Pettit, Robert Lee   
Pettus, Frances C.   
Pfannkuch, Orville E.   
Pflum, Raymond J.   
Philip, George, Jr.14-04-191216-06-1945 
Phillips, Charles Emery   
Phillips, George Lincoln18-11-1903  
Phillips, John Lloyd, Jr.   
Phillips, John Spinning28-02-189517-12-1975 
Phillips, Richard Heldsden   
Philpott, Gordon C.   
Phipps, Peter00-00-190918-09-1989 
Piaseczny, William L.   
Pierce, Francis E., Jr.   
Pierce, George Ellis   
Pierce, Harold G.   
Pierce, John Reeves03-11-190610-01-1943 
Pierce, Warren H.   
Pilchner, Warren Fitch, Jr.   
Pilewski, George S.   
Pinckney, William27-04-1915  
Pinkerton, David W., Jr.   
Pinney, George Robert08-01-192219-09-2011 
Pinter, Alponse A.   
Pittman, William Robinson   
Pitts, Ray Maurer   
Plant, Ray U., Jr.   
Platt, Calvin   
Ploss, Richard S.   
Plumley, Merwyn C.   
Poepper, James Raymond02-02-192425-12-1964 
Pohtilla, William Carl17-11-191826-07-1991 
Poitras, Edwin William   
Polakowski, Casimir R.   
Polk, Harold E.   
Polk, Lucille O.18-10-1912  
Polk, Marley Ollen   
Pollock, Daniel C.   
Pollock, Edwin Allen21-03-189905-11-1982more 
Pond, Kenneth Arthur 10-09-1942 
Pool, Chester J.   
Poole, Minor Butler   
Porras, Charles Victor, Jr.   
Porter, George E., Jr.   
Porter, William Whitaker   
Portz, Warner P.   
Post, William S., Jr.   
Potter, Albert Marshall, Jr.   
Potter, Charles S.   
Pottersnak, Charles J.   
Pottorff, David M.   
Poulin, Andrew Victor00-00-1921  
Poulson, Oscar, Jr.   
Pound, Harold C.   
Pound, Henry T.   
Powell, Ernest A.   
Powell, Robert Francis   
Powell, Ward F.   
Powell, William Thomas   
Powers, Bernard J.   
Powers, Charles R.   
Powers, Harry Adams   
Powers, James J.12-05-1917  
Powers, Oswald A.   
Powers, Robert A.   
Prahar, Temple F.   
Prater, Leonard Rolla   
Prater, Luther Delano, Jr.   
Pratt, Richard R.   
Pratt, Theodore C.   
Prendergast, George, Jr.   
Prendergast, James F.   
Presley, Frank H.00-00-1920  
Presley, Sam Davis   
Pressler, Louis Philip, Jr.18-01-191625-02-1990more 
Preston, Benjamin G.   
Preston, Benjamin S., Jr.   
Prewitt, Vance Carlyle   
Price, John Dale   
Prickett, Samuel Lee, Jr.   
Pritchett, Benjamin F., Jr.   
Prosek, Gilbert George   
Prosser, Bruce   
Pucci, Ralph Francis   
Puckett, David Oliver   
Puller, Lewis Burwell "Chesty"26-06-189811-10-1971more 
Putnam, Paul Albert00-00-192600-00-1953 
Pyne, George C.   

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