Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Cabell, John Bredkenridge   
Cady, Joseph   
Caffey, John Franklin   
Cagle, Malcolm W.   
Cahill, Robert Buel   
Cail, Elden H.   
Caldwell, David Clark   
Caldwell, Frank C.   
Caldwell, Henry Howard   
Caldwell, Richard Wayland   
Caldwell, Robert H., Jr.   
Caldwell, Turner F., Jr.   
Callahan, Joseph William   
Calvin, Frank C.22-10-192303-02-1989 
Cameron, Curtis Leroy   
Cammack, Osborn "Bud"31-05-192130-06-1976 
Camp, Jean Lewis   
Campbell, Clarence George, Jr.   
Campbell, Clifford Morgan   
Campbell, Colin   
Campbell, Frank McHugh   
Campbell, George Marvin   
Campbell, Grafton Blair   
Campbell, Kendall C.   
Campbell, Lucius D.   
Campbell, Robert Keith   
Campbell, Truman Frederick   
Campion, Kenneth O.   
Canejo, Lionel A.   
Canfield, Clayton M.   
Cantrel, William August   
Capano, Patsy   
Capps, Arlin George   
Carberry, William J.   
Card, Eugene Tinsley   
Carey, John Frank   
Carl, Marion Eugene01-11-1915  
Carlisi, Salvatore   
Carlon, Kenneth Eugene   
Carlson, Evans Fordyce   
Carlson, Niles A. A.   
Carlton, Ted Joseph   
Carmichael, Joseph R., Jr.   
Carmichael, Robert   
Carney, Robert Bostwick26-03-1895  
Carr, George Raines   
Carroll, Wells Worth   
Carson, D.A.   
Carson, Joseph Malcolm   
Carter, Andrew J., Jr.   
Carter, David Lewis   
Carter, David V.   
Carter, Grayson B.   
Carter, James D.   
Carter, John Warren   
Carter, Melvin Reed   
Carver, Lamar P.   
Cary, Robert Webster18-08-189015-07-1967more 
Case, Leo B.   
Case, Victor L. 22-09-1944 
Casey, Daniel F.   
Cassedy, Hiram   
Castle, Donald H.   
Castle, William R.   
Cates, Clifton Bledsoe31-08-189304-06-1970more 
Cates, William Finnie   
Cathey, Gilbert Eugene   
Cavallaro, Salvatore J.   
Cavenagh, Robert W.   
Cearley, G. B.   
Cecil, Charles Purcell04-09-189331-07-1944 
Celentano, Frank W.   
Cevoli, Richard L.   
Chaffe, Robert Downing   
Chaffee, Davis Elliott   
Chaffin, Bradford W., Jr.   
Chaisson, James J., Jr. 31-03-2001 
Chamberlin, William C. "Bill"   
Chambers, John Barry   
Chambers, John Sheeve   
Champagne, Joseph D.R.09-11-192217-02-2010 
Champlin, Malcolm McGreor   
Champlin, Norman David   
Chandler, Theodore Edson   
Chapman, John H., Jr.   
Chapman, Melvin Leroy   
Chappell, Lucius H.   
Chapple, Wreford Goss19-03-190820-05-1991 
Charlton, Jason T.   
Charpentier, Donald A.   
Chase, Gordon Percival   
Chauvel, Arthur L.   
Check, Leonard Joseph   
Cheek, Marion Case   
Cheek, Tom F.   
Chickering, Howell D.   
Christensen, Wilbur Neal   
Christian, Cliffond Luther   
Christiansen, John S.   
Christie, Alexander Albert   
Christie, William F.   
Christman, Elwyn Lewis14-07-191531-03-1945 
Christopher, Harold J.   
Christopher, Thomas Aloysius24-05-1911  
Chung-Hoon, Gordon Pai'ea   
Cladin, Lewis   
Claggett, Bladen Dulaney26-02-191206-05-2009 
Claing, Joseph L. P. G.   
Clancy, Robert Lawrence19-06-192229-03-2004more 
Clapp, Edward Sylvester   
Clarey, Bernard A.   
Clark, Carlton Howard   
Clark, Charles Robert, Jr.28-05-191816-12-2008 
Clark, Douglas A.   
Clark, Henry Eugene   
Clark, Joseph James   
Clark, Lawrence Arthur   
Clark, Max00-00-189724-10-1944more 
Clark, Paul Leaman   
Clark, Robert Booth   
Clark, Warren James   
Clarke, John M.   
Clarke, Robert Cleminson   
Clarke, Thomas E.   
Cleland, Cook   
Clement, William Tardy27-09-189417-10-1955more 
Clementson, Merrill K.   
Cleveland, Irving   
Cliett, Robert L.   
Clifford, John Kingdom   
Clinton, Robert J.   
Clive, Richard Howard   
Close, Richard L.   
Coats, Robert Charles "Bob"02-01-1918  
Cobb, Philip Walker   
Cochran, Ernest Henry   
Cochran, Jack Cowan   
Cockrell, Alvin Chester, Jr.   
Codrea, George   
Coe, James Wiggins   
Coffee, Dovle Murray   
Coffield, Ralph E.   
Coffin, Albert Peyton   
Coghlan, Thomas J.   
Cole, Cyrus Churchill   
Cole, John Sanford21-05-192000-00-1953 
Cole, William M.   
Coleman, Edward James   
Coleman, Karl B.   
Coleman, Robert Louis28-08-1913  
Coleman, Thaddeus T., Jr.   
Coley, Lewis E.   
Colgan, William Winfield   
Collins, Cecil B.   
Collins, Roland H.   
Collins, Ross Thomas14-03-1922  
Collins, William James   
Collins, William Magill, Jr.   
Collins, William Neil27-09-192010-01-1984more 
Cona, Angelo M.   
Cone, James I.   
Confer, Herbert E.   
Conger, Jack Eugene06-04-192122-04-2006 
Conkey, George Lissant   
Conklin, Eugene Vincent   
Conklin, George E.   
Conklin, Raymond Foster   
Conley, Thomas Francis, Jr.   
Conn, Willard Earl   
Connally, Clem B.16-01-191714-01-1997 
Conner, Leon Stevens   
Connolley, Joseph E.   
Connolly, Bartholomew J., III   
Connors, Gerald Martin   
Conoley, Odell M.   
Conron, Carl Edward, Jr.   
Conroy, Edward   
Conroy, Thomas Joseph   
Conti, Anthony J. P.   
Cook, Andrew Fred   
Cook, Dallas H.   
Cook, George Carlton   
Cook, George E.   
Cook, Lawrence Blanchard   
Cook, Morrill I.Jr.   
Cook, Orville M.   
Cook, Paul Peniston26-10-1921  
Cook, Raymond B.   
Coolbaugh, Walter W.   
Cooley, Albert Dustin   
Cooner, Bunyan R.   
Cooper, Jacob Elliott   
Cooper, James Samuel   
Cooper, Joshua W.   
Cooper, William Goodwin   
Copeland, Robert Witcher09-09-191025-08-1973more 
Coppedge, John D.   
Corbus, John   
Cordiner, Douglas L. L.   
Corey, Howard G.   
Corey, Richard L.   
Corl, Harry L.   
Cornell, Wallace Gordon   
Corry, Roy A.   
Corsi, Albert Joseph12-05-191105-05-1955 
Corzine, Jimmy W. 14-09-1942 
Cosgrove, John J., Jr.   
Cosgrove, Robert Donald09-01-191922-03-2005more 
Cosley, Jack   
Cotrell, Lewis   
Cousins, Howard L., Jr.   
Cousins, Ralph Wynne   
Coward, Jesse Grant   
Cox, George Emerson, Jr.   
Cox, John Richard, Jr.14-04-191319-02-1995 
Cox, Robert L..   
Cox, William Ruffin   
Coye, John S., Jr.   
Coyte, Ralph H.   
Craig, Clement Melvin   
Craig, Donald Munro   
Craig, Edward A.22-11-189600-12-1994 
Craig, Francis Selinger, Jr.11-05-1918  
Craig, John Rich   
Craig, William D.   
Craighill, Robert Rutherford   
Crain, Edward L., Jr.   
Cram, Jack R.   
Cramer, Frederick W.   
Crane Edgar J.   
Crapser, Stuart Ethelward   
Craven, Howard R.   
Crawford, James Taylor   
Crawley, Lawrence Noble   
Creamer, William E.   
Crellin, Conrad Wesley   
Crenshaw, James R., Jr.   
Cresswell, Leonard B.   
Crocker, John A.   
Crocker, John Howard, Jr.   
Crommelin, Charles Laurence   
Crommelin, Richard Gunter   
Crosby, John T.01-07-1920  
Cross, Frederick C., Jr.   
Cross, William E.   
Crotts, Hubert Douglas   
Crouch, William L.   
Crouther, Mark H.   
Crow, Roger Curtis   
Crowe, Henry Pierson "Jim"00-00-189900-00-1991 
Crowe, William E.   
Crowley, Herbert Daniel   
Crowley, John D.   
Crowton, Robert Frederick   
Cruise, Edgar Allen   
Crumley, Jerome Charles   
Crumpton, Billie Joe   
Crusan, Lloyd Edward   
Cruze, Jack D.   
Cullen, Wilford J.   
Cummings, Damon Morris30-01-191013-11-1942 
Cummings, Daniel L.   
Cummings, Ralph Waldo   
Cunico, Narcissus G.   
Cunningham, Daniel Gerald   
Cunningham, Winfiesld Scott   
Cupp, James N.   
Curran, Robert Patrick   
Currin, Ralph H.   
Curry, Russell Edgar   
Curtin, Robert E.   
Curtis, Ned Bigelow   
Curtright, Jess Leonard   
Curts, Maurice Edwin   
Cushing, Stephen Walter   
Cushman, Kent Manning   
Cushman, Robert Everton, Jr.24-12-191402-01-1985more 
Cutter, Slade Deville01-11-191109-06-2005more 
Czaja, John W.