Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
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Bachelot, Webster J., Jr.   
Bacon, Barton E., Jr.   
Baer, Donald G.   
Baggett, Bernie O.   
Bahring, Raymond W.   
Bailey, Bryan, Jr.14-10-1922  
Bailey, Wilfred Maurice   
Bain, John Burton   
Bair, Dale W.   
Baird, Robert   
Baker, Daniel Wirt   
Baker, Earl Philip, Jr.   
Baker, John Drayton   
Baker, Lewis Russell   
Baker, Lionel Henry   
Baker, Paul Gerald   
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Bakutis, Frederick Edward04-11-191204-10-2009more 
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Balducci, Paul   
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Ball, Joe Frederick   
Band, John M.   
Bangs, Louis Lee   
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Banister, Alan B.   
Banker, Donald Francis   
Bantz, Rex Lesourc   
Barber, Donald Blair   
Barber, Rex T.   
Barbey, Daniel Edward "Uncle Dan"23-12-188911-03-1969 
Barbour, Loran Eli   
Bardeen, Burton L.   
Bardelmeier, Joyce M.   
Barden, Kenneth Perrin   
Barfield, Charles H.   
Barker, Harry B.   
Barker, James Dudley30-09-190700-11-1943 
Barker, Robert A.   
Barnard, Lloyd Glynn   
Barnes, Doyle Clayton   
Barnes, James M.   
Barnes, Robert James   
Barnes, Robert M.   
Barnes, Stanley Maitlan   
Barnes, William   
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Barney, Bernard   
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Barnum, Jack P.13-04-191600-07-1985 
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Bass, Harry Brinkley04-07-1916  
Bass, Horace A., Jr.   
Bass, Raymond Henry   
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Bass, Stewart   
Bassett, Edgar R.   
Basso , Joseph G.   
Batchelder, Merton Jennings   
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Batten, Rollin Morgan, Jr.   
Bauer, Louis H.   
Bauhof, William Ross   
Bausinger, Robert J.   
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Beebe, Marshall U.   
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Bisheimer, Alexander Joseph   
Bishop, Claude Ulysses, Jr.   
Bitchell, Stanley L.   
Bitting, Soule Tryon   
Bitzegato, Norman B.   
Bivin, Bernard Eugene   
Bjarnason, Paul Henrik   
Black, Clarence H.   
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Blackburn, John T.   
Blaha, Robert J.   
Blain, Richard L.   
Blair, Leon Nelson   
Blake, Frank William   
Blakely, Edward Noe   
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Blanchard, James W.   
Blaser, Frederick   
Bleau, Calvin J.   
Bledsoe, Albert MacQueen   
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Booth, Charles T., II   
Borecki, Peter   
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Bownik, Arthur Donald   
Boyce, Thomas Ewings   
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Brandel, Stuart L.   
Brandon, LeRoy   
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Branyon, Howard H.   
Brassfield, Arthur James   
Bray, Raymond Leon   
Bray, William T.00-00-191500-00-1967 
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Brega, Giovanni F.   
Brehm, Harold Paul   
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Brennan, James Clark   
Breslove, Joseph, Jr.  more 
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Brewer, Charles Walter   
Brice, Robert Greenleaf   
Bridgers, John David04-07-192012-05-2007 
Bridges, Robert Arthur   
Bridget, Francis Joseph   
Bridson, Gordon02-12-190906-12-1972 
Bright, Mark K.   
Bringle, William F.   
Briscoe, Robert Pearce19-02-189714-10-1968more 
Bristol, Wilson T.   
Bristow, Jesse M.   
Bristson, Richard E.   
Brixley, Lloyd A., Jr.   
Broach, John C.   
Broach, Leo Densel   
Brocato, Samuel J., Jr.15-10-192009-06-1960 
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Brock, Robert Lee   
Brockman, William Herman "Bill" (Jr.)18-11-190402-02-1979 
Broderick, John C.   
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Brodie, Robert J., Jr.   
Brody, Allen   
Broeker, Orville E.W.   
Bronn, Clyde Leroy   
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Broome, Roger G. B.   
Browder, Maurice Eugene22-10-189705-11-1973 
Brown Fletcher L., Jr.   
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Brown, George Peter   
Brown, Jack Pershing   
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Brown, Kenneth Lyndon 23-11-1943 
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Brown, Wilson Jr.27-04-188202-01-1957more 
Browne, George H.   
Browne, Robert T.   
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Brugger, William E.   
Brunelle, Albert Wilfred   
Brunelli, Austin Roger20-08-190723-09-1989 
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Brunn, Othello Christian   
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Burke, Edmund Michael08-06-191605-02-1987more 
Burke, Edward J.   
Burke, Francis T.   
Burke, Louis Edward, Jr.04-10-191622-09-1984 
Burke, Phillip Ray   
Burkhart, Calvin   
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Burns, John A.   
Burns, John S.   
Burns, William Shuler   
Burr, Leland M.   
Burrows, Albert Collins23-09-190524-02-1984 
Burrus, John Clinton   
Busck, Vihelm Klein   
Bush, Billy   
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Butel, Joseph Louis   
Butler, Arthur H.   
Butler, John A.30-09-1910  
Butler, John Clarence02-02-192104-06-1942 
Butler, John Munroe   
Butler, William Clayton, Jr.   
Butt, Noah B., Jr.   
Butts, John L., Jr.   
Byrnas, Adolf B.   
Byrne, Paul V.   
Byrom, Jack Alvin