Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Jabour, Thomas E.   
Jaccard, Richard Alonzo   
Jackson, Mercer Lee, Jr.   
Jackson, Percival W.   
Jacobs, Whitney W.   
Jacobsen, Erling E.   
Jacobsen, Ralph Norman   
Jamison, Robert J.   
Jamison, William Calvin   
Jancar, Arnost   
Janic, Michael M.   
Janney, Frederic Wistar Morris   
Jannotta, Alfred V.   
Jarrell, Albert Edmondson   
Jarrett, Harry Bean12-10-1898  
Jarrett, Thirl E.   
Jarvis, Benjamin C.   
Jarvis, Melvin L.   
Jason, Albert Stanley   
Jean, Grady Binford   
Jeanes, Charles O.   
Jehli, Raymond Edward   
Jendeski, Vincent   
Jenkins, John O., Jr.   
Jenkins, Samuel Power   
Jenkins, Thomas H.   
Jenkins, William Maxwell   
Jennings, Carter Brooks   
Jennings, Robert Harvey   
Jensen, Alvin Julius23-06-1920  
Jensen, Hans Lundby   
Jensen, Hayden Martin   
Jernigan, Vermon D.   
Jerue, George Edward26-08-1920  
Jester, Maurice David13-05-188931-08-1957 
Jewell, Jesse D.   
Johns, Harry E.   
Johnsmiller, Robert W.   
Johnson, Cecil Vermon   
Johnson, Chandler W.   
Johnson, Charles E.   
Johnson, Dale Leighton   
Johnson, David Arthur   
Johnson, Donald W.   
Johnson, Douglas Pollock   
Johnson, Dwight Lyman16-08-191405-04-1987 
Johnson, Earl Vincent   
Johnson, Earle Cross   
Johnson, Frank Lesher   
Johnson, Hugh C.   
Johnson, John G.   
Johnson, John Walton   
Johnson, Paul E.   
Johnson, Raymond Edward   
Johnson, Raymond W.   
Johnson, Robert Theodore   
Johnson, Roy W.   
Johnson, Russell Harry22-08-1925  
Johnson, Wallace W.   
Johnson, William David   
Johnson, William Harold   
Johnston, Samuel D.   
Johnston, Thomas Peet J.   
Jolly, Howard Delcour   
Jolly, John Chapman   
Jones, Arthur Duane   
Jones, Carrol Burgess   
Jones, Harold B.   
Jones, Howard   
Jones, James, Jr.   
Jones, John W.   
Jones, Louis R.   
Jones, Ralph Melgrim   
Jones, Robert   
Jones, Robert E.   
Jones, Thomas R., III   
Jones, William Kenefick23-10-1916  
Joralmon, Deforest Quentin   
Jordan, Donald R.   
Jorgenson, John H.   
Jovanovich, George C.   
Joy, Daniel Albert11-10-191805-10-1942 
Joyce, Richard Wood   
Jukes, Herbert L.   
Julian, Jesse P.   
Junk, Windield Higdon   
Jurgens, Cedrick   
Jurike, Stephen, Jr.   
Justice, Frank W.