Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

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Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Haag, Sylvester J.   
Haas, John W.   
Haas, Walter Albert   
Habecker, Frederic S.   
Haberman, Roger Anthony   
Hacker, Elmer   
Hagan, Harold F.   
Hagedorn, Bruno P.   
Hagen, Robert Cris   
Hahn, Henry W.   
Hahn, Orville V.   
Hailey, Thomas E.   
Haines, John Meade   
Haines, Richard A.28-04-190330-11-1942 
Hale, Cornelius Clay15-01-1919  
Hale, Henry Henderson   
Hale, William   
Hall, David Rogers   
Hall, Frank Martin   
Hall, Fred Martin   
Hall, Grover B.H.   
Hall, Kenneth Charles   
Hall, Robert Kierr   
Hall, William C.   
Hall, William Merideth   
Halperin, Robert   
Halsey, Delbert Wayne08-12-1919  
Halsey, William Frederick "Bull" Jr.30-10-188216-08-1959more 
Halstrom, Paul Robert   
Haluchak, Alex   
Hamawalt, Winthrop R.   
Hamberger, DeWitt C.E.   
Hamilton, Curtis   
Hamilton, Henry B.   
Hamilton, Weldon Lee   
Hamm, Andrew Britte 28-07-1945more 
Hananwalt, Winthrop Richard   
Hank, William E.   
Hankins, Joseph F. 03-10-1944 
Hanks, Eugene Ralph   
Hanlon, Byron Hall27-09-1899  
Hanna, Robert M.   
Hanna, William T.   
Hanneken, Herman Henry "Hard-Hearted"23-06-189323-08-1986more 
Hansberry, Edward H.   
Hansen, Alfred Lawrence   
Hansen, Chris M. R.   
Hansen, Herman, Jr. "Hap"   
Hansen, James R.   
Hansen, Leslie E.   
Hansen, Paul L.   
Hansen, Richard O.   
Hansen, Sigurd   
Hanson, Alden Wilbur   
Hanson, Clifford A.   
Hanson, Eugene R.   
Hanson, Robert Murray04-02-192003-02-1944more 
Hardee, Lee H.   
Harden, Hubert B.   
Harding, Warren G.25-11-194216-06-1944 
Hardison, Osborne Bennett   
Hardy, Robert James   
Hardy, Willis Everett   
Harkness, Robert   
Harlfinger II, Frederick Joseph   
Harmon, Leonard Roy21-01-1917  
Harper, Harold E.   
Harper, John Frank, Jr.   
Harral, Brooks, Jr.   
Harrelson, Stewart E.   
Harrer, Keith J.   
Harris, Albert Thomas   
Harris, Boone T.   
Harris, Cecil Elwood 02-12-1981more 
Harris, Fred   
Harris, Hugh K.   
Harris, J. D., Jr.   
Harris, Morgan H.   
Harris, Robert Martin   
Harris, Vincent Henry   
Harris, William Hugh, Jr.   
Harrison, Henry A., Jr.   
Harrison, Howard Houston   
Harrison, Lawrence A.   
Harrison, William E.   
Harrison, William Henry   
Hart, Franklin Augustus16-09-189422-06-1967more 
Hart, Patrick Henry   
Hartgraves, Vern S.   
Hartman, Irvin S.   
Hartvig, Donald H.   
Hartwig, Glenn Roy   
Harvey, Colin C.   
Harvey, Frederick B., Jr.   
Harwood, Bruce Lawrence   
Haschke, Marvin Milton05-12-191609-07-2002 
Haskins, Enrique D’Hamel   
Hastings, Burden Robert   
Hastings, William Walton   
Hathaway, Amos Townsend05-12-191326-08-1996 
Hatler, Elton L.   
Hawes, Frederick William   
Hawes, Richard E.   
Hawkins, Arthur Ray   
Hayler, Robert Ward (Sr.)07-06-189117-11-1980 
Haynes, Leon Wilder   
Hays, Wesley Myron   
Hayter, Hubert M.   
Hazelwood, Harold R.   
Hazzard, William H.   
Headley, James G.   
Hebert, Joseph Carlyle   
Heck, Edward, Jr.   
Hederman, Thomas H.   
Hedges, Francis Earl   
Hedlund, Oswald Joseph   
Heflin, Edward Allen   
Hegerty, Thomas M.   
Heilmann, Louis Andrew   
Heim, Carl F., Jr.   
Heim, Elbert S.   
Heim, John D.   
Heinen, Ira E.   
Helm, Donald F.   
Helmuth, Lawrence Edward   
Helpingstine, Herbert   
Helz, Eugene Raymond   
Hemby, Merrill J.   
Hemenway, Charles William   
Hempstead, Don D., Jr.   
Hencey, Clarence   
Henderson, Charles M.   
Henderson, Lofton R.24-05-190304-06-1942more 
Henkel, Donald Wesley   
Hennessy, Daniel J.   
Henrikson, Howard Russell   
Henry, Walter Franklin   
Henry, William Earl   
Hensel, Karl G.   
Herbst, Warren R.   
Herman, Saul William   
Hermle, Leo D.   
Hern, Joseph, Jr.   
Hernandez, Nicholas   
Herndon, Raymon W.   
Herrick, Robert Frank   
Hervey, Cameron E.   
Herwig, Robert J.   
Hess, John B.   
Hessel, Edward William   
Hesson, James Frank21-11-1906  
Hewitt, Henry Kent00-00-188700-00-1972 
Heyler, Romayn F.   
Heyliger, George   
Heymann, Clement L.   
Hickox, Charles R., Jr.   
Higgins, John Martin13-08-1899  
High, Paul L.   
Hilderbrand, James T., Jr.   
Hill, Andrew Jewel   
Hill, Charles C.   
Hill, Eugene L.   
Hill, Robert E.   
Hills, Clifford C.   
Hilsky, Robert Joseph27-09-1916  
Himelrick, John Roberts   
Hine, Raymond K.   
Hiner, Harold L.   
Hippe, Kenneth George   
Hirshberg, Allen M.   
Hirshfield, James Albert30-07-190216-05-1993 
Hiser, Wilbur Floyd   
Hissem, Joseph M.   
Hite, Robert William   
Hjelstrom, Joseph Gilbert   
Hock, Herman Edward   
Hodges, Ashley R.   
Hodges, Flournoy Glen22-01-191904-06-1942 
Hodges, Herbert J.   
Hoeffel, Kenneth M.   
Hoerner, Helmuth Ernest   
Hoffman, Charles Keith   
Hoffman, Melvin C.   
Hoffman, Raymond G.   
Hofman, Fred, Jr.   
Hofman, Wilbur E, Jr.   
Hofstetter, Arnold Christian   
Hogaboom, William Frederick00-09-191514-12-1944 
Hogan, Herbert Clay   
Hogan, Stephen Clement, Jr.   
Hogan, Thomas Wesley, Jr.11-04-190908-01-1985 
Hogden, Raymond Lorainne   
Hoge, Charles Vernon22-11-192229-12-2002 
Hogue, J. C.   
Holder, Randolph Mitchell   
Holdredge, Willard B.   
Holdren, Lawrence H.   
Hole, Legare Romig01-01-1917  
Holladay, Samuel Meredith, Jr.   
Holland, John Wisdom   
Holley, Edward Brainard   
Hollingsworth, William R.   
Hollister, James O.   
Holloway, Lester F.   
Holmberg, Paul A.   
Holmes, Bobby F.   
Holmes, Kenneth Alfred   
Holmes, Robert H.   
Holt, Phillip Christian   
Holt, Rommie L.   
Holt, William Mack   
Holton, Ralph L.   
Homer, William N. P.   
Honsowetz, Russell E.   
Hood, Rudolph B. "Rudy"12-01-192310-08-2019 
Hoover, Gilbert Corwin   
Hoover, James T.   
Hopgood, Robert Brown   
Hopkins, Lewis Alexander   
Hopkins, Thomas D., Jr.   
Horak, Ernest W.   
Horan, James T.   
Horenburger, Carl Herman   
Horn, Robert Aaron   
Horne, Thomas M.   
Horovitz, James Jacob   
Horton, Kenneth Bryan   
Hoskins, John Madison   
Houck, Herbert Norman   
Hourihan, John Joseph   
House, Andrew Jackson   
House, Arthur Caswell, Jr.   
House, William Hiram   
Houser, Ralph L.   
Howard, Curtis W.   
Howard, Robert Leonard   
Howard, Samuel L.   
Howard, Stanley L.   
Howe, Hamilton Wilcox   
Howe, Kenneth Eugene   
Howell, Donald S.14-04-192530-11-2009 
Howell, James Nicholas, Jr.   
Howell, John David   
Hoyle, Ronald Jackson   
Hoyt, Raymond Earl, Jr.   
Huddleston, James C.   
Huddleston, Virgil   
Hudgins, Robert S.   
Hudson, Harold Gayle   
Hudson, John J.   
Hudson, Lewis C.   
Hudspeth, Daniel W.   
Huffman, Gerald Martin   
Huggins, Jesse Caper   
Hughes, David Ferrar   
Hughes, John Nelson28-11-190922-10-1989more 
Hughes, Stanley S.   
Hull, Donald L.   
Hull, Harry   
Hull, Jesse L.   
Hulland, Charles W. S.   
Humberd, William   
Hund, Robert J.   
Hungerford, Joseph Floyd "Bee"20-11-192026-04-2008 
Hunnicutt, James L.   
Hunniford, William J., Jr.   
Hunt, Charles B.   
Hunt, George P. 06-07-1991 
Hunt, Richard L., Jr.   
Hunt, Wilfred A.   
Hunter, James B., Jr.   
Hunter, Robert Nisbet   
Huntington, Kenneth E.   
Huntley, William Harold   
Hurd, Kenneth Charles   
Hurley, Robert W.   
Hurst, Edward Hunter18-12-191606-09-1997 
Hurst, Edwin William   
Hurt, Samuel H.   
Huszarik, Joseph, Jr.   
Hutchins, Charles Harris   
Hutchinson, Edward Shillington   
Huttenberg, Allen J.   
Hutto, Ernest Elery14-07-192220-08-2011 
Hutto, John Francis   
Hyde, John Milton   
Hydeman, Earl T.   
Hyland, George B.   
Hyman, Willford Milton16-08-190107-05-1942 
Hynd, Harry Franklin   

Sources