Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

more
Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
MacCracken, William B., II   
MacDonald, Donald John   
MacGregor, Edgar John, III   
MacInnes, Donald Elver   
Mack, Harold John29-12-191709-08-1942 
MacKenzie, Burt Cameron   
MacKenzie, Colin J.   
MacKenzie, George Kenneth, Jr.30-05-191015-03-1943 
Mackin, Dean L.   
MacLean, William Plannette   
MacMilllan, Duncan C.   
Macomber, Brainard Tucker   
Madole, Eugene P.   
Magee, Christopher L.   
Maghakian, Victor30-12-1915  
Maguire, William Charles, Jr.   
Mahannah, Martin E.   
Maher, Arthur L.   
Maher, James Edward   
Maher, Joseph Benedict21-03-190410-06-1996 
Mahoney, Robert Thomas   
Mahoney, Thomas G.   
Maichack, John   
Maier, William   
Makstutis, John B.   
Malanaphy, Michael Joseph   
Malanowski, Anthony P.   
Malavergene, Rene   
Mallory, Donald L.   
Maloney, John Thomas   
Maloy, Thomas Joel   
Maltby, Arthur L., Jr.   
Mamonas, Christopher   
Manahan, Merle E.   
Mangrum, Richard C.   
Mann, Thomas H., Jr.   
Manning, Joseph Ignatius   
Manning, Robert L.   
Maples, Gordon 20-09-1944 
March, James Donald   
Marcy, Lincoln   
Marini, Daniel J.   
Markham, Jerry Neal   
Marks, Howard P.   
Marmande, James E.   
Marontate, William Pratt03-12-191915-01-1943more 
Marquez, Eleuterio Joe21-02-192528-08-2015 
Marquis, Joseph T.O.   
Marsh, Wilbur Lee   
Marshall, Elliott Eugene   
Marsolo, Ettore J.08-02-192131-07-2012 
Martin, Albert E., Jr.   
Martin, David W.   
Martin, Glen E.   
Martin, John Craysdale   
Martin, Leo   
Martinek, Paul Peter   
Martorano, John   
Marts, Alvin Lee   
Marvin, Glen E.   
Marvin, Milton Calvin "Slug" 29-07-1944 
Mason, Charles Perry   
Mason, Edric Robert   
Mason, John Lowery   
Mason, Leonard Maurice   
Masoner, William John, Jr.05-09-1917  
Massaro, Russell J.   
Massey, Lance E.   
Masters, James M.   
Mather, Thomas C.   
Mathias, Leonard Paul   
Mathis, Lloyd Thomas   
Matthews, Frederick S.   
Mattis, Johnnie E.04-10-1913  
Mattox, Redfield High   
Mattson, Edward D.   
Maul, Elmer   
Maupin, Delbert D.   
Maurer, John H.   
Maxfield, Russell Ansonk   
Maxson, Willis Edward, III   
May, Orville W.   
May, Robert   
Mayer, Nicholas John   
Mayers, Thomas J.   
Mayhew, Boyd N.   
Mayock, Frank   
Mazza, Harold Ralph15-11-191224-06-1956more 
McAlarnis, James P.   
McAnn, Donald Roy   
McAuliffe, John T.   
McBride, William Edward   
McCaffery, Joseph P.   
McCain, John Sidney, Sr. "Slew"09-08-188406-09-1945more 
McCalley, Royce A.   
McCampbell, David S.16-01-191030-06-1996more 
McCarstle, Howard P., Jr.   
McCarthy, Francis P.   
McCarthy, John Reginald   
McCarver, William S.   
McCauley, James W.   
McClintock, David H.26-02-191211-01-2002 
McClusky, Clarence Wade, Jr. "Mac"01-06-190227-06-1976 
McComas, Clyde H. 26-06-2007 
McCombs, Charles Edward   
McCormack, Vincent F.   
McCracken, Alan Reed   
McCracken, Bobby G.   
McCracken, Floyd Elmer   
McCrea, Victor B.   
McCrory, Woodrow W.   
McCuddin, Leo Bob   
McCue, Hartsel Filler   
McCulley, Hale T.   
McCune, Charles E.   
McCurdy, Jack C.   
McCuskey, Elbert Scott   
McCutcheon, Donald27-12-1920  
McDaniel, Charles O.   
McDaniel, George T., Jr.   
McDaniel, Hector S.   
McDaniel, Jacob H.   
McDaniel, Stanley C. "Champ"   
McDermott, James S.   
McDonald, Frank Ronald   
McDonald, Jasper Newton   
McDonald, John Sumner   
McDonald, Philip T.   
McDowell, Henry Martin   
McDowell, Wilfred O.   
McElroy, Rhodam Y., Jr.   
McElwee, Robert Eugene18-07-1921  
McFarland, Alan Roberts   
McFeatrers, Charlie Paul   
McGann, Patrick Henry   
McGarvey, James F., Jr.   
McGaughey, Harold M.   
McGee, James   
McGinn, Addies S., Jr.   
McGinty, Franklin Alexander   
McGloin, Edward W.   
McGovern, George E.   
McGowan, Edward C.   
McGraw, Joseph D.   
McGreevey, James E.   
McGregor, Donald   
McGregor, Louis D., Jr.   
McGuire, Kenneth R.   
McHenry, George W.   
McHenry, Robert Edward   
McIlhenny, Harry H.   
McIlhenny, Walter S.   
McInerney, Francis Xavier   
McInnis, Alex N., Jr.   
McIntosh, George R.   
McKay, Walter C.   
McKee, Augustus Bernard   
McKee, John T.   
McKelvy, William N., Jr.   
McKenna, Francis Joseph   
McKinney Eugene B.   
McKinney, William Russell   
McKinny, John Blackhall   
McLarney, Edward P.   
McLawhorn, Evren C.   
McLean, Ephraim Rankin, Jr.   
McLellan, Paul F.   
McLennan, Noyes   
McLeod, Kenneth F. 25-06-1944 
McLeod, Maynard M.   
McMackin, Roland N.   
McMahon, Bernard Francis13-08-190723-02-1983more 
McManes, Kemore Mathew   
McMillan, Donald Wallace   
McMillian, Ira Ellis   
McMorris, Charles H.   
McMullen, Barton E.   
McMurtry, Paul James   
McPherson, Irving Herbert   
McPhie, Donald Alma   
McPoland, James J. "Jim"22-03-1915  
McRae, Harry R., Jr.   
Mead, George H., Jr.   
Mead, Harry R.   
Mears, Dwayne Eugene "Bobo" 20-02-1945 
Mears, Howard F.   
Mee, Fenton J.   
Meeker, Jack   
Meharg, John R.08-11-191930-10-2010 
Melhorn, Charles Mason20-07-191800-00-1983 
Mellown, Glenn Edward   
Melnitsky, Edward   
Melville, Max E.   
Melvin, Donald Joseph   
Melzone, Petero   
Mentch, Charles E.   
Merrill, Aaron Stanton "Tip"26-03-189028-02-1961 
Merrill, Herbert T.   
Merrill, Milford A.   
Merrill, Sidney D.B.   
Merritt, Charles D.   
Merritt, James Franklin, Jr.   
Messer, John A., Jr.   
Messmer, William Leroy   
Mester, Cecil Ralph   
Mester, Charles H., Jr.   
Metcalf, Ralph Marion   
Metsker, Gerald Jared   
Metts, Robert L.   
Metzger, George E.   
Meyers, Albert W.   
Michael, Stanley John   
Michael, Vernon Larsen20-08-191729-07-2010 
Michaelis, Frederick Hayes   
Michaud, Wilfred V.   
Michel, Edward A., Jr.   
Micka, Edward   
Micklick, William J.   
Middleton, John, Jr.   
Mielke, John W.   
Mildahn, Elwood C.   
Miles, Bill A.   
Miles, Robert B.   
Millar, Harold H., Jr.   
Miller, Clair Lemaine   
Miller, Clark William   
Miller, Doris12-10-191924-11-1943 
Miller, Edwin Swain15-11-1910  
Miller, Frank J.   
Miller, George Harold   
Miller, Gilbert Ellis   
Miller, Harry Franker   
Miller, Hugh Barr, Jr.   
Miller, Jack   
Miller, James B.   
Miller, James D.   
Miller, Jim D.   
Miller, Johnnie Gamble   
Miller, Justin Albert   
Miller, Kenneth Roy   
Miller, Norman Mickey   
Miller, Raymond   
Miller, Vernon H.   
Miller, Victor LaVerne   
Miller, William Morton   
Millican, William John24-04-190417-10-1944 
Millis, Carl Junior   
Mills, Charles L.   
Mills, Lanson Davis   
Mills, Richard Harold   
Milner, Robert M.   
Minarik, Harry Joseph03-04-1920  
Mini, James Haile   
Mini, Robert L.   
Mitchel, Ormsby M., Jr.   
Mitchell, George R.   
Mitchell, Henry E.   
Mitchell, James T.   
Mitchell, John W.14-06-1914  
Mitchell, Shelby Wilson   
Mitchell, William French   
Mitscher, Marc Andrew "Pete"26-01-188703-02-1947 
Moan, Floyd Edward07-04-1915  
Moehring, Bruce Hunter   
Mollard, Norman Wesley, Jr.   
Mollenhauer, Arthur Paul07-08-192412-10-1944 
Momsen, Charles B.   
Monagham, James F.   
Monarch, Charles R.   
Money, Peter M.   
Monges, Charles J.   
Montgomery, Alfred E.   
Montgomery, Elmer F.   
Montgomery, Mark Valentine, Jr.   
Moore, Augustus L., Jr.   
Moore, Ben, Jr.   
Moore, Edward Charles   
Moore, Fred Kenneth   
Moore, John A.   
Moore, John Raymond "Dinty"11-10-1905  
Moore, Kenneth Emerson   
Moore, Paul, Jr.   
Moore, Ralph E., Jr.   
Moore, Raymond Austin   
Moore, Raymond Elmo   
Moore, Robert D.   
Moore, Thomas F., Jr.   
Moore, Ulvert M.   
Moore, William E.   
Moore, William Lee   
Moosbrugger, Frederick   
Mooty, Alfred Fraiser   
Moran, Edward J.   
Moran, Martin   
Morehouse, Albert Kellogg   
Morgan, Corwin Franklin   
Morgan, Lindsey E.   
Morgan, Robert James   
Morrell, Rivers J., Jr.   
Morrill, John H.   
Morris, Donald William   
Morris, Emmett R.   
Morris, George Kenneth   
Morris, Joshua   
Morris, Robert A.   
Morrow, Richard E.   
Morse, Ralph C., Jr.   
Morton, Dudley Walker17-07-190711-10-1943 
Morton, Gilbert L.   
Morton, Robert C.   
Morton, William Benjamin   
Moseley, Stanley Page   
Mowery, Earl J.   
Moyers, Henry Horace   
Mueller, Bernhardt L.   
Mueller, Carl D.   
Muir, Kenneth H.   
Muldrow, John Ellison   
Mullaney, Baron J.   
Mullen, Robert Lewis   
Muller, Julian P.   
Mullinnix, Allen Prather12-12-189804-01-1978 
Mulvihill, Francis Gerald   
Mumma, Morton C., Jr.   
Munns, Ivan L.   
Munson, Henry Glass   
Munson, Melvin J.   
Murphree, Jesse E.   
Murphy, Charlton Lewis, Jr.   
Murphy, Francis J.   
Murphy, Henry F.   
Murphy, John J., Jr.   
Murphy, Joseph Nathaniel   
Murphy, Joseph William01-06-1919 more 
Murphy, William E.   
Murray, George Dominic   
Murray, Michael F., Jr.   
Murray, Raymond L.30-01-191311-11-2004more 
Murray, Thomas Oliver   
Music, William A., Jr.   
Musick, Kenneth Floyd   
Muskin, Leonard Gordon   
Mustain, Hollis U.   
Myers, Edward   
Myers, Edward Charles, Jr.   
Myers, Kenneth Watson   
Myers, Robert Ira   
Myers, Samuel E.   
Myers, Thomas J.   

Sources