Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

more
Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Kabler, William Leverette   
Kachinski, Roland F.   
Kaelin, Joseph   
Kahn, Lauren Herman   
Kail, William E.   
Kaiser, Jerome   
Kalus, Daniel Stephen   
Kanaga, Franz N.   
Kane, Joseph Lester19-08-190205-05-1997 
Kane, William Richard   
Karch, Lloyd Elwood   
Karnes, Austin C.   
Karonowski, Lawrence Stephen   
Karrol, Joseph John   
Katsulis, Demosthenes V.   
Katz, Aaron   
Katz, Benjamin   
Kauffman, Draper Laurence   
Kay, Francis   
Kay, Willis L.   
Keane, Charles P.   
Keating, Robert A., Jr.   
Keeley, Edward C.   
Keely, Warren Lee   
Kefauver, Russell   
Keighley, William Harold15-05-190924-03-1989more 
Keiningham, Jack   
Keiser, Norman M.   
Keith, LeRoy W.J.   
Keith, Willard W., Jr.   
Keithly, Roger Myers   
Kelley, Clarence H., Jr.   
Kelley, Clarence O.   
Kelley, Maynard C.   
Kelley, Warren Peterson   
Kellogg, Frederick A.   
Kelly, Donald J.   
Kelly, Edward F.   
Kelly, Fonville   
Kelly, Reef P.   
Kelly, Robert Bolling   
Keltch, Rubin   
Kelton, C.J.   
Kemper, George Emil   
Kendall, John G.   
Kennard, Robert Aldrich   
Kennedy, Charles R.   
Kennedy, Donald G.   
Kennedy, Joseph Patrick28-07-191512-08-1944 
Kennedy, Leo E.   
Kenney, Edward Christopher19-02-190422-02-1983more 
Kenton, Roland H.   
Kenyon, Henry Russell, Jr.   
Kenyon, Howard N.   
Kenyon, Karl Walton23-02-191827-03-2007 
Kepford, Ira Cassius   
Kernan, Alvin Barnard   
Kernodle, Michael Holt   
Kerns, John I.   
Kerr, Robert Charles   
Ketcham, William T., Jr.   
Ketza, Norbert Frank   
Key, Eugene M.   
Kibbe, Richard Luscius   
Kiechlin, Robert Jerome   
Kiefer, Dixie   
Kiland, Ingolf N.   
Killiany, John J.   
Kilpatrick, MacGregor   
Kimbrel, Robert Walker   
Kimmel, Charles J.   
Kinard, Leon Frederick   
Kinaszczuk, Thomas   
Kincaid, John Oliver, Jr. 00-05-1999 
Kincaid, Robert A.   
Kincannon, William Bruce   
King, Emmett Thomas   
King, Ernest Joseph "Ernie"23-11-187825-06-1956more 
King, Joe Wiley09-02-1917  
King, Shane Hastings   
Kingsley, Luke A., Jr.   
Kinney, Sheldon Hoard27-08-191811-12-2004 
Kinsella, William T.   
Kintberger, Leon Samuel24-04-191004-09-1983more 
Kinzer, Edward Blain   
Kirby, Emmett F.   
Kirk, Oliver Grafton30-09-190705-03-1981 
Kirkham, Charles Noble   
Kirkpatrick, Charles Cochran20-06-190712-03-1988more 
Kirkpatrick, Charles Eugene11-01-1909  
Kirkpatrick, Donald, Jr.   
Kirkwood, Philip L.   
Kirn, Louis Joseph   
Kirwin, John Hawthorne27-02-192222-05-1998 
Kirwin, John J.   
Kitts, Willard A., III   
Kizirian, Harry   
Klakring, Thomas Burton "Burt"19-12-190424-07-1975 
Klatt, George S.   
Klein, Millard Jefferson "Mike"25-07-190809-10-1943 
Kleinsmith, Charles28-09-190404-06-1942 
Kleiss, Norman Jack07-03-1916  
Klinger Robert L.   
Klingerman, Raymond F.   
Klingman, Robert R.   
Klunk, John   
Knapp, Paul Joseph   
Knight, Frank LeRoy   
Knispel, Arthur William   
Knobles, William M.   
Knoll, Frank P.   
Knoph, Robert A.   
Knox, Leslie Lockhart Bruce   
Koch, Walter Merkel   
Koch, Wesley Arthur   
Koen, George   
Kolb, Otto F., Jr.   
Koll, Daniel   
Kollman, Charles E.   
Komenich, Louis   
Konrad, Edmond G.   
Koontz, William O.   
Kopf, Frank A.   
Kops, Stanley D.   
Kossler, Herman Joseph08-12-191101-07-1988more 
Kost, Michael E.   
Koster, Herbert Anthony   
Kouma, Anthony B.   
Koutelas, George E.   
Koval, John   
Kovar, Isadore M.   
Kramer, Irvin, Jr.   
Krapf, Arthur E.   
Kreamer, Walter Hain   
Krenzer, Leonard   
Krepski, Theodore E.   
Kresse, Walter A.F., Jr.   
Kroeger, Edwin John   
Kroeger, Frederick Everett   
Krouse, Michael Henry   
Kruck, Warren J.10-06-1921  
Krulak, Victor Harold "Brute"07-01-191329-12-2008 
Kucherov, Stepan Grigoryevich01-08-190231-03-1973more 
Kuder, William A.   
Kuhn, William R.   
Kunkel, Robert D.   
Kunz, Charles Murphy 12-11-1999 
Kurzenkov, Sergei Georgiyevich07-07-191118-11-1981more 
Kyes, James E.   

Sources