Navy Cross

When the United States entered the First World War, the country had no other meritorious decoration than the Medal of Honor. It had no decoration to recognize heroic actions that could not apply for the Medal of Honor. To fill this gap, the US Army instituted the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal in 1918. The Navy and Marine Corps followed somewhat later.
On February 4th 1919, the Navy Cross was instituted by act of Congress as the third highest Naval decoration after the Navy Medal of Honor and the Navy Distinguished Service Medal.

This made the medal not very popular. Most servicemen regarded it as a minor decoration.
The Navy Cros was made retroactive till April 6th 1917. On August 7th 1942, the Congress upgraded the medal and placed it directly under the Medal of Honor. It then became a combat-only recognition.

The Navy Cross was designed by James Earl Fraser. Through the years it knew some differences. The medal itself has always been the same. It is a three part construction. The cross and the front and the back of the medallion are struck separately and soldered together. The earliest version (1919-1928) wears a ribbon with a very narrow white stripe on the blue cloth. The medal has mostly a dull, greenish bronze colour. The later issues (1928-1941) have a more custom .5" white stripe on the ribbon and are of a more darker, gunmetal bronze.
The cross is designed as a modified cross that measures 1,5 inches wide. The ends of the arms are rounded. On each re-entrant arms of the cross can be found a bunch of laurel leaves with berries to represent achievement. In the centre is depicted a sailing vessel on waves, sailing to the left. The ship is a so called Caravelle, symbolic for sailing ships of the 14th century.
The reverse bears crossed anchors of the pre-1850 period, with attached cables. In the mid can be found the letters USN.
The ribbon is in Navy Blue with a white stripe in the center, to represent the Navy service and the purity of selflessness.

The Navy Cross may be awarded to any person who, while serving with the Navy or Marine Corps, distinguishes himself in action by extraordinary heroism not justifying an award of the Medal of Honor. The action must take place under one of three circumstances: while engaged in action against an enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or, while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict in which the United States is not a belligerent party. To earn a Navy Cross the act to be commended must be performed in the presence of great danger or at great personal risk and must be performed in such a manner as to render the individual highly conspicuous among others of equal grade, rate, experience, or position of responsibility. An accumulation of minor acts of heroism does not justify an award of the Navy Cross.

Replicas are almost without exception struck out of one piece instead of the original three piece construction. During the years 1941-1942 a variation was seen that was nicknamed “Black Widow” with a blackened finish of the medal. Most of these awards were awarded posthumously. From the mid of World War Two the more original dull bronze finish was once more adapted.

Abele, Mannert Lincoln* July 11th, 1903
† August 16th, 1942

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Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Raborn, Albert   
Raby, John01-11-1907  
Radomski, Stanlely Bernard   
Ragland, Maurice A.   
Rairich, John E.   
Ramage, James David   
Ramage, Lawson Paterson "Red"19-01-192015-04-1990more 
Ramage, Robert W.   
Ramlo, Orvin Herbert   
Ramsay, Thomas W.   
Ramsey, DeWitt Clinton   
Ramsey, Donald James   
Ramsey, Paul Hubert   
Rand, Hazen Bradford   
Randall, John W.   
Ranson, Robert Query   
Raposa, William C.   
Rasmussen, Haakon B.   
Rauch, Cloyd D., Jr.   
Rawie, Wilmer E.   
Ray, Billy Dean   
Ray, Dewey F.   
Ray, James Renwick   
Ray, Martin Hasset, Jr.   
Raymond, Fred Luman   
Raysbrook, Robert D.   
Rea, Amedeo   
Read, William Augustus, Jr.   
Reardon, William Leo, Jr.   
Reckus, William F.   
Rector, Edgar M.   
Reed, Alan   
Reed, George Alexander   
Reed, John Ward   
Reed, Robert D.   
Reed, Robert S.   
Reeder, Donald Grant   
Reeves, Don Gene   
Regan, Robert F.   
Regester, Richard Peirson   
Reich, Eli Thomas   
Reichel, John D.   
Reichl, Matthew Joseph   
Reid, Beverly W.   
Reid, James Ralph, Jr.   
Reidy, Thomas Hamil   
Reifsnider, Lawrence Fairfax26-11-189714-05-1956 
Reiser, Frank J.   
Reiserer, Russell Lawrence22-10-191923-08-2009 
Reisert, Jacob Matthew   
Remby, Merrill J.   
Remington, Donald A.   
Renner, Joseph N.19-07-1909  
Rentz, George Snavely25-07-188201-03-1942more 
Reusser, Kenneth L.   
Reymann, Clement L.   
Reynolds, Harold P.   
Reynolds, Luther Kendrick   
Reynolds, Terrence J., Jr.   
Rheindt, Robert Lee   
Rhodes, Ralph A.   
Rice, Robert Henry17-09-190320-05-1994 
Rich, Gerald M.   
Rich, Ralph M.   
Richards, Alfred Huymphreys   
Richards, Kenneth Gordon03-10-191714-03-1962 
Richardson, Harold E.08-01-192415-05-1945 
Richardson, Orbert B.   
Richey, William F.   
Ridgeway, Earl D.   
Ridlon, Walter J., Jr.   
Riduka, Frank   
Riegel, James E.   
Riera, Robert Emmett   
Ries, Robert E., Jr.   
Rigg, James Francis   
Riggs, Cecil D.   
Riggs, Ralph Smith20-06-189528-04-1981 
Rile, Frank H., Jr.   
Riley, George B.   
Riley, Joseph Archer   
Riley, Paul James12-04-191304-06-1942 
Riley, Robert G.10-01-192100-06-1981 
Rindskopf, Maurice Herbert "Mike"27-09-191727-07-2011more 
Rineer, Francis D.   
Riner, James A., Jr.   
Ring, Stanhope Cotton   
Ringbloom, Allan H.   
Ringgold, Charles F.   
Ringness, Henery R.   
Rippee, William B.   
Rising, William Starling, III   
Risser, Robert Dunlap   
Ritchie, James   
Ritter, Frederick Henry   
Rivers, John   
Roach, Fred Burr   
Robb, James William, Jr.   
Robb, William G.   
Robbins, Berton Aldrich, Jr.27-08-190804-12-1983more 
Robbins, Franklin C.   
Robbins, Orme Campbell10-02-191327-12-1978 
Roberton, Donald R. A.   
Roberts, Clayton Leroy07-04-192527-10-1950 
Roberts, David Wells   
Roberts, Francis E.   
Roberts, Harold C.   
Roberts, Howard Stowe   
Roberts, John Quincy   
Roberts, John Summerfield   
Roberts, Raymond Mural   
Roberts, Samuel Booker, Jr.   
Roberts, Wilbur E.   
Roberts, William R.   
Robertson, Charles A.   
Robertson, Donn J.   
Robinson, Arthur Granville   
Robison, Carl F.   
Robison, Charles W.   
Roche, David John02-12-191804-06-1942 
Rock, John R.   
Rockey, Keller Emrick27-09-188806-06-1970more 
Rockwell, Dean Ladrath   
Rockwell, John H., Jr.   
Rodee, Walter F.   
Rodenburg, Eugene E.   
Rodgers, Bertram Joseph18-03-189430-11-1983 
Roebuck, Gerald Edward26-07-1923  
Rogers, Lawrence D.   
Rogers, Neil L.   
Rogers, Raymond D.   
Rogers, William R.   
Rohe, Max Elliott   
Rolf, Robert W.   
Rollen, Claude G.24-05-1912  
Rollow, Jesse D., Jr.   
Rombach, Sevrin Louis   
Romberger, William Melvin   
Romoser, William Killan   
Roosevelt, James "Jimmy"23-12-190713-08-1991more 
Roper, Clifford H.   
Rorman, Wayne D.   
Rosenbloom, Alvin E.   
Rosendahl, Charles Emery   
Ross, Guiford Neely   
Ross, Melville Talbert   
Ross, Philip Harold   
Ross, Robert P.   
Ross, William Thomas   
Rossi, Herman Joseph, Jr.02-05-191800-09-1985 
Roth, Egbert Adolph10-12-190500-10-1944 
Rothenberg, Allan   
Rothschild, Maier J.00-00-191301-12-1972more 
Rountree, Benjamin C.   
Rouzee, George M.   
Rowe, John Bennett   
Rowley, John Windsor   
Rubel, David Michael   
Rubin, Joseph Leonard   
Ruchamkin, Seyman D.   
Ruddock, Theodore Davis, Jr.   
Ruddy, Joseph A., Jr.   
Ruess, Edward 00-05-1945 
Ruhsam, John W. "Gruesome"07-09-192227-06-2009 
Ruiz, Edward J.   
Runk, Theodore William   
Runyan, Joseph Wayne   
Runyon, Donald E.26-06-1913  
Rupertus, William Henry "Bill"14-11-188925-03-1945 
Rush, Charles   
Rushing, Roy Warrick15-12-192108-01-1986 
Russell, John B.   
Russell, Richard Winslow   
Ruth, Wesley H.   
Rutledge, Alvin O.   
Ruzicka, Lumir, Jr.   
Ryan, Francis Xavier   
Ryan, James S.   
Ryan, Michael Patrick30-01-191609-01-2005more 
Ryan, Thomas John, Jr.05-08-190128-01-1970