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Bronze Star Medal (BSM)

The Bronze Star Medal was officially instituted by Executive Order 9419 on February 4th, 1944. It was based on the idea of Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder in 1943. He had launched the thought that it was good for the morale of the military when there was a decoration that could be awarded by Captains of a Company or Battery to the personnel who served under their command. Colonel Reeder saw this medal as the ground version of the Air Medal and first introduced the name "Ground Medal". At first the decoration was to be instituted with the U.S. Navy to be given to ground and surface personnel for heroic or meritorious deeds. For unknown reasons the institution did not occur. The idea was picked up by General George C. Marshall who wrote a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The president instituted the medal the very next day.

The decoration could be awarded to any military who, serving within or together with the army of the United States after 6th December 1941, decorating himself by heoric or meritorious deeds as military, not participating in air operations, during military operations against an armed enemy or during an armed conflict in which the United States was not participating as a beligirent. The decoration could be awarded for the discribed heroic actions, not sufficient to be awarded the Silver Star or for meritorious actions or meritorious acting of service, which did not qualify for the awarding of the Legion of Merit. In 1947 the possibilities for awarding were enlarged. From that moment on the medal could also be awarded to any member of the United States Army that were mentioned in orders after December 6th, 1941 or who had received a certificate for exceptional service in goundbattle against an armed enemy between December 7th, 1941 and September 2nd, 1945 or who’s merit could be proven by documents dated before July 1st, 1947. This made it possible to award the Bronze Star to any person who had received the Combat Infantryman Badge or the Combat Medical Badge.
The Bronze Star can also be obtained by veterans or next of kinn. Military that took part in the struggle on the Philippines between December 7th, 1941 and May,10th 1942 could receive the medal when the action took place on Luzon, the Bataan peninsula or the Harbour Defences on Corregidor Island and were entitled to the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Military who had received the Purple Heart during the early days of the Second World War specifically for merit and not for wounds could in some occasions also exchange the Purple Heart for the Bronze Star. To any foreign soldier that fought in close coöperation with the United States Army, the decoration could also be awarded.

The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of Bailey, Banks and Biddle who also designed the Silver Star. The decoration measures 1,5 inch (38 mm) over all. In the middle there can be found another bronze star with a diametre of 3/16 inch (4,8 mm). All radials in the centre of both stars continue in one each other. The back bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" and a space to ingrave the recipients name.

The medal hangs on a ribbon with a square loop and rounded corners. The ribbon measures 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) wide. Left and right can be fond a 1/32 inch (1 mm) wide white line, followed to the inside by a scarlet 9/16 inch (14 mm) broad band. In the middel can be fond an ultramarine blue band measuring 1/8 inch (3 mm) flanked by two 1/32 inch (1 mm) lines.

Every next Bronze Star awarded was to be shown by a bronze oak leaf cluster (US Army, Air Corps and Air Force) or a golden star (US Navy, Marines and Coast Guard). At every fifth award, the bronze and golden were replaced by a a silver oak leaf cluster or silver star. A bronze "V" for "Valor" was awarded when the Bronze Star was received for heoism in battle, thus distincting the award from the Bronze Stars warded for merit. This "V" was introduced in 1945. The action it was to be awarded for had to be of significant value. Only one "V" was permitted to be worn on the ribbon.

Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.* September 15th, 1914
† September 4th, 1974

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Adams, Lucian* October 26th, 1922
† March 31st, 2003
Plot: AI Grave: 555

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Adler, Samuel L.† April 20th, 1945
Plot: F Row: 11 Grave: 26

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Fagan, William   
Faggart, Donald Armstrong "Nick"09-03-192102-02-1996more 
Fansher, Clifford R.   
Farinholt, Joseph A. “Lightning”17-07-192211-06-2002more 
Farquarson, Douglas Ian   
Farrar, Archibald Alexander06-09-192125-12-1992 
Fasoli, Nello J.   
Fayette, Harold D.   
Fechteler, William Morrow06-03-189604-07-1967more 
Feery, William Henry26-06-191608-05-1991 
Fees, Walter S., Jr.17-09-191730-05-2001 
Fehrman, Robert A.   
Fekete, Michael G.11-03-1914 more 
Fencl, Robert J.   
Fende, John P.22-09-192221-03-2011more 
Fenetre, André   
Fenton, Francis Ivan11-08-189203-07-1978 
Ferguson, Dennis R.   
Fernandes, Alfred J. 06-11-1944 
Fernandez, George V. 06-06-1944 
Ferra, Porfirio E.   
Ferree, Arthur C.   
Ferro, Louis P.   
Fescina, Rocco D. Jr.25-08-1923  
Field, David H.   
Field, Richard J. "Dick"20-08-192425-04-2016more 
Fielding, George Thomas (III) "Dodge"01-02-191730-04-1945 
Fields, Daniel   
Fields, Grover Franklin   
Fields, James H.26-06-192017-06-1970more 
Fifield, Richard H. "Dick"17-08-1921  
Filosi, Marino 09-11-1943 
Finder, Edwin 06-06-1944 
Fink, William H.   
Finley, Thomas D.   
Firstbrook, George A.01-06-192417-02-2010 
Fischer, Allen W.   
Fischer, Edward J.   
Fischer, John Henry   
Fish, Robert W.   
Fisher, Allen W.   
Fisher, Almond Edward28-01-191307-01-1982more 
Fisk, Robert T.   
Fite, Judge B.   
Fitzpatrick, John J.   
Flaherty, Charles Albert00-00-191900-00-1980more 
Flaherty, Edward John02-12-192428-06-2006 
Flanery, Charles Williams18-01-191630-04-1945 
Flannigan, Robert25-12-192305-12-2015 
Fleck, Theodore B.   
Fleck, William G. "Bill" 21-09-2005 
Fleener, Wayne   
Fletcher, Gene F.   
Florin, Walter F.   
Flowers, James E.   
Flynn, Ralph M.   
Foley, Jack Edward18-08-192214-09-2009more 
Foley, James E. 17-03-1945 
Foley, John Paul24-02-191811-07-2008 
Foley, Joseph Ferrall 00-00-1995 
Fonda, Henry Jaynes16-05-190512-08-1982 
Fontanini, Aldo   
Foote, Theodore V.   
Forbus, James R.   
Forehand, Calvin   
Foreman, Charles L. "Chuck"10-09-192511-12-2009 
Foreman, Wilson  more 
Fort, James12-10-192023-12-2005 
Forte, Joseph A.   
Foster, John L.   
Foubert, Kenneth S.02-12-192118-10-1942 
Fouchy, Albert O.10-09-192314-05-1963 
Fountain, John   
Fox, John Robert18-05-191826-12-1944 
Fox, Walter W.   
Frable, Francis P.   
Fraley, Haskell   
Frandsen, Earl C.00-00-190209-01-1945 
Frankel, William E.   
Frankland, Robert E.   
Franklin, Jim C.   
Franklin, John E.00-00-192100-00-2008 
Franklin, Roosevelt "Peter"   
Franklin, William David   
Frankovitz, John09-12-192015-04-1945 
Franzen, Virgil C.   
Frazee, Douglas R.00-00-1925  
Frederick, Robert Tryon14-03-190729-11-1970more 
Freitas, Vernon J.   
Freund, John Frederick27-04-191822-03-2001 
Fribourg, Leonard Earl31-12-192114-08-1993more 
Fricchione, Mario18-02-192125-02-2009 
Friedli, John C.   
Friend, Martin J. 11-03-1945 
Frigo, Lionel O. "Lee"19-09-192002-03-1986 
Frihauf, Michael Anthony30-09-191724-07-1944 
Frischmann, Martin L.   
Fritsch, Richard M. 05-03-2007 
Fritter, Richard E. 01-06-1999 
Fry, James C.  more 
Fryar, Elmer E.00-00-191508-12-1944 
Frye, Donald W.   
Fudge, William Newman23-12-191706-04-1945 
Fugitt, Warren Graves   
Fulcher, Earl G.20-06-192311-11-2003 
Fulgham, Frank M.   
Fuller, George Travis   
Fuller, Gilbert H.20-03-1918 more 
Fuller, Herman Roy29-10-191426-09-1944 
Fuller, Richard H.   
Funk, Charles A.   
Funk, Leonard A. Jr.27-08-191620-11-1992more 
Furr, Charles P. 25-09-1944 

Sources