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Bronze Star Medal (BSM)

The Bronze Star Medal was officially instituted by Executive Order 9419 on February 4th, 1944. It was based on the idea of Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder in 1943. He had launched the thought that it was good for the morale of the military when there was a decoration that could be awarded by Captains of a Company or Battery to the personnel who served under their command. Colonel Reeder saw this medal as the ground version of the Air Medal and first introduced the name "Ground Medal". At first the decoration was to be instituted with the U.S. Navy to be given to ground and surface personnel for heroic or meritorious deeds. For unknown reasons the institution did not occur. The idea was picked up by General George C. Marshall who wrote a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The president instituted the medal the very next day.

The decoration could be awarded to any military who, serving within or together with the army of the United States after 6th December 1941, decorating himself by heoric or meritorious deeds as military, not participating in air operations, during military operations against an armed enemy or during an armed conflict in which the United States was not participating as a beligirent. The decoration could be awarded for the discribed heroic actions, not sufficient to be awarded the Silver Star or for meritorious actions or meritorious acting of service, which did not qualify for the awarding of the Legion of Merit. In 1947 the possibilities for awarding were enlarged. From that moment on the medal could also be awarded to any member of the United States Army that were mentioned in orders after December 6th, 1941 or who had received a certificate for exceptional service in goundbattle against an armed enemy between December 7th, 1941 and September 2nd, 1945 or who’s merit could be proven by documents dated before July 1st, 1947. This made it possible to award the Bronze Star to any person who had received the Combat Infantryman Badge or the Combat Medical Badge.
The Bronze Star can also be obtained by veterans or next of kinn. Military that took part in the struggle on the Philippines between December 7th, 1941 and May,10th 1942 could receive the medal when the action took place on Luzon, the Bataan peninsula or the Harbour Defences on Corregidor Island and were entitled to the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. Military who had received the Purple Heart during the early days of the Second World War specifically for merit and not for wounds could in some occasions also exchange the Purple Heart for the Bronze Star. To any foreign soldier that fought in close coöperation with the United States Army, the decoration could also be awarded.

The Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of Bailey, Banks and Biddle who also designed the Silver Star. The decoration measures 1,5 inch (38 mm) over all. In the middle there can be found another bronze star with a diametre of 3/16 inch (4,8 mm). All radials in the centre of both stars continue in one each other. The back bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" and a space to ingrave the recipients name.

The medal hangs on a ribbon with a square loop and rounded corners. The ribbon measures 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) wide. Left and right can be fond a 1/32 inch (1 mm) wide white line, followed to the inside by a scarlet 9/16 inch (14 mm) broad band. In the middel can be fond an ultramarine blue band measuring 1/8 inch (3 mm) flanked by two 1/32 inch (1 mm) lines.

Every next Bronze Star awarded was to be shown by a bronze oak leaf cluster (US Army, Air Corps and Air Force) or a golden star (US Navy, Marines and Coast Guard). At every fifth award, the bronze and golden were replaced by a a silver oak leaf cluster or silver star. A bronze "V" for "Valor" was awarded when the Bronze Star was received for heoism in battle, thus distincting the award from the Bronze Stars warded for merit. This "V" was introduced in 1945. The action it was to be awarded for had to be of significant value. Only one "V" was permitted to be worn on the ribbon.

Abrams, Creighton Williams, Jr.* September 15th, 1914
† September 4th, 1974

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Adams, Lucian* October 26th, 1922
† March 31st, 2003
Plot: AI Grave: 555

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Adler, Samuel L.† April 20th, 1945
Plot: F Row: 11 Grave: 26

Grid List
NameDate of birthDate of deathAwards
Kaczor, John B.   
Kadereit, Fred W.   
Kahler, Vernon F.   
Kaiser, Alfred J. (US Army)   
Kaiser, James Lawrence (505th Parachute Inf.Reg.)25-09-1915 more 
Kallas, Dominic G.   
Kammerud, Leland J.   
Kamoroske, Paul E.   
Kane, George W.   
Kane, Howard Joseph00-00-192006-02-1945 
Kaplan, Milton   
Karnitz, Harvey H.   
Karr, Dominic J.   
Karter, Thaddeus D.   
Kashevaroff, Jack   
Kasun, Joseph Frank07-11-191821-02-2013more 
Kaufman, Urban A.   
Kavulle, Michael   
Kawahara, Richard H.12-07-192302-11-1944 
Kawamoto, Haruo17-06-191606-02-1944 
Keathley, George Dennis10-03-191714-09-1944 
Keating, Frank Augustus04-02-189528-04-1973more 
Keck, Clifford G.   
Keeble, Woodrow Wilson16-05-191728-01-1982more 
Keefe, Philip F.   
Keefe, Robert A.   
Keefe, Roger M.   
Keen, John D.   
Keighley, Geoffrey   
Keller, Lucien F.10-08-1914 more 
Keller, Robert   
Kelley, Edward J.   
Kelley, Francis F.   
Kelley, Jonah Edward "Eddie"13-04-192331-01-1945 
Kelley, Richard W.   
Kellogg, Breadon H.   
Kellogg, William W. 27-02-2003 
Kelly, George Alexander Kirk   
Kelly, John J. (US-274th INF)   
Kelly, R. D.   
Kelly, William H.   
Kelsey, Edward W.   
Kemp Jr., William G.12-07-191921-10-2006 
Kemp, Harry T.   
Kemp, Richard L.   
Kempner, Merton Philip   
Kendall, George R.   
Kendall, Paul W. "The Bull"   
Kendrick, Elmer D.   
Kennard, Harry V.   
Kennedy, Bluford Carl   
Kennedy, Joseph E. 09-11-1945 
Kenney, Edward Christopher19-02-190422-02-1983more 
Kenyon, William W.   
Keofod, Paul E.   
Kerber, William   
Kerley, Ralph A.01-06-191722-03-1967 
Kessler, Olla Albert17-11-1921 more 
Keyes, Richard W.   
Keys, Andrew   
Kibbee, Forrest Hamilton 31-01-1945 
Kilgore, Charles D.   
Killingsworth, Edward Pascal 21-12-1944 
Kilpatrick, Howard L. "Wahoo"   
King, Earl H.   
King, Ernest J. (US-508th PIR)27-11-191709-06-1944 
King, George W., Jr.   
Kingman, Allen Frederick18-12-189301-08-1988more 
Kinney, Oliver G.   
Kinney, Richard W.18-11-191425-12-1944 
Kinzy, Robert C. 06-06-1944 
Kirby, Kenneth M.   
Kirk, Robert N.   
Kirkland, Ernest B.   
Kirkpatrick, Rodney H.   
Klaassen, William K.   
Klein, Robert E.   
Kleinman, Maurice J.   
Klemetsmo, Reynold C.   
Klettlinger, Louis A.   
Kline, Harold W.   
Klinefelter, Phillip24-07-191900-09-1971 
Klinsky, Joseph R.   
Klitzner, Abraham   
Klocko, Richard Phillip "Dick"26-02-191519-04-2011more 
Kloe, Donald Robert02-01-192508-09-2015 
Kloiber, Frank J.   
Klosner, Leonard H.   
Klote, Edward J.   
Knapp, William F.   
Kneebone, William R.   
Knight, Samuel K.   
Knight, St. Clair A., Jr.   
Knott, Dale T.   
Kobashigawa, Yeiki "Lefty"28-09-191731-03-2005more 
Kocemba, Charles A.    
Kohn, Joseph   
Komis, John   
Konopka, Edward   
Koontz, Leslie E. 11-01-1945 
Korejsza, Leopold, F.15-11-192213-11-1944 
Kosdnar, Walter J.   
Koski, Raymond E. 16-11-1944 
Koster, Harold John29-01-192419-03-2007 
Kovalcin, Joe C.   
Kowalske, Florian J.   
Kowalsky, Teddy   
Kozub, Paul (sr.)22-10-192317-11-2012 
Kraft, James B. "Kannonball"   
Kralovich, Joseph F.   
Kraus, Leonard J.   
Krayebeek, Paul   
Kreigsman, Albert O.   
Kreiling, George W.   
Kremer, Robert F.   
Kresal, William F.   
Krim, Louis H.   
Krimmer, Charles H.   
Krintzman, Lawrence   
Kroesen, Park J.   
Krueck, Arthur J.   
Krulak, Victor Harold "Brute"07-01-191329-12-2008more 
Kryder, George M., Jr.   
Kubachko, Andrew Jr.   
Kubo, Hoichi21-07-1919  
Kuehl, Delbert A.06-01-191713-09-2010more 
Kuhlman, Clifford E.   
Kukura, Frank15-12-191727-01-1945 
Kuntz, Jay E.   
Kunze, Charles J., Jr.00-00-192317-05-1945 
Kunzel, Herbert15-08-190800-00-1999 
Kurinovich, Alexander   
Kuykendall, Jasper "Pete"00-00-192203-10-2012 
Kwitkin, Meyer   

Sources